Public Library Of Science PLOS. A Common Left Occipito-Temporal Dysfunction in Developmental Dyslexia and Acquired Letter-By-Letter Reading? Abstract Background We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem.
Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters) on response time for words and pseudowords. Results Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT) regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords.
Conclusions The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions. Editor: Hans P. Received: April 14, 2010; Accepted: July 16, 2010; Published: August 11, 2010 Copyright: © 2010 Richlan et al. Introduction Results Behavioral results Imaging results Figure 1. Activation of the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus in the First 200 ms of Reading: Evidence from Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Abstract Background It is well established that the left inferior frontal gyrus plays a key role in the cerebral cortical network that supports reading and visual word recognition.
Less clear is when in time this contribution begins. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG), which has both good spatial and excellent temporal resolution, to address this question. Acute Stress Induces Hyperacusis in Women with High Levels of Emotional Exhaustion. Abstract Background Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems.
A Randomized Controlled Trial on The Beneficial Effects of Training Letter-Speech Sound Integration on Reading Fluency in Children with Dyslexia. Abstract A recent account of dyslexia assumes that a failure to develop automated letter-speech sound integration might be responsible for the observed lack of reading fluency.
This study uses a pre-test-training-post-test design to evaluate the effects of a training program based on letter-speech sound associations with a special focus on gains in reading fluency. A sample of 44 children with dyslexia and 23 typical readers, aged 8 to 9, was recruited. Children with dyslexia were randomly allocated to either the training program group (n = 23) or a waiting-list control group (n = 21). Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Stable across Development? Abstract There is accumulating evidence that autistic traits (AT) are on a continuum in the general population, with clinical autism representing the extreme end of a quantitative distribution.
While the nature and severity of symptoms in clinical autism are known to persist over time, no study has examined the long-term stability of AT among typically developing toddlers. The current investigation measured AT in 360 males and 400 males from the general population close to two decades apart, using the Pervasive Developmental Disorder subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist in early childhood (M = 2.14 years; SD = 0.15), and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in early adulthood (M = 19.50 years; SD = 0.70).
Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific. Abstract In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations.
This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME) in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1–9) as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2) at the first (S1) and second (S2) stimuli. The participant’s task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3), presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT) at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory.
Abstract Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information.
However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM). First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. Auditory-Motor Mapping Training as an Intervention to Facilitate Speech Output in Non-Verbal Children with Autism: A Proof of Concept Study.
Abstract Although up to 25% of children with autism are non-verbal, there are very few interventions that can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output.
Recently, a novel intervention called Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT) has been developed, which aims to promote speech production directly by training the association between sounds and articulatory actions using intonation and bimanual motor activities. AMMT capitalizes on the inherent musical strengths of children with autism, and offers activities that they intrinsically enjoy. Auditory Processing in Noise: A Preschool Biomarker for Literacy. Abstract Learning to read is a fundamental developmental milestone, and achieving reading competency has lifelong consequences.
Although literacy development proceeds smoothly for many children, a subset struggle with this learning process, creating a need to identify reliable biomarkers of a child’s future literacy that could facilitate early diagnosis and access to crucial early interventions. Neural markers of reading skills have been identified in school-aged children and adults; many pertain to the precision of information processing in noise, but it is unknown whether these markers are present in pre-reading children. Here, in a series of experiments in 112 children (ages 3–14 y), we show brain–behavior relationships between the integrity of the neural coding of speech in noise and phonology. Author Summary Citation: White-Schwoch T, Woodruff Carr K, Thompson EC, Anderson S, Nicol T, Bradlow AR, et al. (2015) Auditory Processing in Noise: A Preschool Biomarker for Literacy. Behavioural and Developmental Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Clinical Systematic Review. Abstract Background Much controversy exists regarding the clinical efficacy of behavioural and developmental interventions for improving the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of behavioural and developmental interventions for ASD. Methods and Findings Comprehensive searches were conducted in 22 electronic databases through May 2007. Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Executive Functioning in Musicians and Non-Musicians. Abstract Executive functions (EF) are cognitive capacities that allow for planned, controlled behavior and strongly correlate with academic abilities. Several extracurricular activities have been shown to improve EF, however, the relationship between musical training and EF remains unclear due to methodological limitations in previous studies. Biological Markers of Auditory Gap Detection in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults.
Abstract The capability of processing rapid fluctuations in the temporal envelope of sound declines with age and this contributes to older adults' difficulties in understanding speech. Although, changes in central auditory processing during aging have been proposed as cause for communication deficits, an open question remains which stage of processing is mostly affected by age related changes. We investigated auditory temporal resolution in young, middle-aged, and older listeners with neuromagnetic evoked responses to gap stimuli with different leading marker and gap durations.
Signal components specific for processing the physical details of sound stimuli as well as the auditory objects as a whole were derived from the evoked activity and served as biological markers for temporal processing at different cortical levels. CATALISE: A Multinational and Multidisciplinary Delphi Consensus Study. Identifying Language Impairments in Children. Final version of consensus statements Even though there was a high level of agreement for Round 2 statements, we made some further modifications to the statements and to the background document to take into account the comments and additional sources of evidence provided by the panel.
Some items were re-ordered (see S4 Doc). The revised set of modified statements and background explanation was circulated to the panel for further comment, and the current paper represents the final agreed version. Fig 2 provides a precis of the main messages embodied in the final set of statements. Please note that any supporting references are provided in the supplementary comments, rather than in the statements themselves. When should a child be referred for specialist assessment/intervention? 1. Children show right-lateralized effects of spoken word-form learning. Abstract It is commonly thought that phonological learning is different in young children compared to adults, possibly due to the speech processing system not yet having reached full native-language specialization. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms of phonological learning in children are poorly understood. We employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to track cortical correlates of incidental learning of meaningless word forms over two days as 6–8-year-olds overtly repeated them.
Native (Finnish) pseudowords were compared with words of foreign sound structure (Korean) to investigate whether the cortical learning effects would be more dependent on previous proficiency in the language rather than maturational factors. Classification and adaptive behavior prediction of children with autism spectrum disorder based upon multivariate data analysis of markers of oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Abstract The number of diagnosed cases of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased dramatically over the last four decades; however, there is still considerable debate regarding the underlying pathophysiology of ASD. This lack of biological knowledge restricts diagnoses to be made based on behavioral observations and psychometric tools.
However, physiological measurements should support these behavioral diagnoses in the future in order to enable earlier and more accurate diagnoses. Clinical Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Co-Occurring Epilepsy. Cochlear Delay and Medial Olivocochlear Functioning in Children with Suspected Auditory Processing Disorder. Common Genetic Variants in FOXP2 Are Not Associated with Individual Differences in Language Development. Cortical Signatures of Dyslexia and Remediation: An Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Approach.
Decoupled Visually-Guided Reaching in Optic Ataxia: Differences in Motor Control between Canonical and Non-Canonical Orientations in Space. Abstract Guiding a limb often involves situations in which the spatial location of the target for gaze and limb movement are not congruent (i.e. have been decoupled). Such decoupled situations involve both the implementation of a cognitive rule (i.e. strategic control) and the online monitoring of the limb position relative to gaze and target (i.e. sensorimotor recalibration). Development of Multisensory Reweighting Is Impaired for Quiet Stance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) Direct Viewing of Dyslexics’ Compensatory Strategies in Speech in Noise Using Auditory Classification Images. Distinct Effects of Memory Retrieval and Articulatory Preparation when Learning and Accessing New Word Forms. Effectiveness of Treatment Approaches for Children and Adolescents with Reading Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Effects of Presentation Rate and Attention on Auditory Discrimination: A Comparison of Long-Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials in School-Aged Children and Adults. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills. Evidence for the Late MMN as a Neurophysiological Endophenotype for Dyslexia. Eye-Hand Coordination during Visuomotor Adaptation with Different Rotation Angles. Eye-Hand Coordination during Visuomotor Adaptation with Different Rotation Angles: Effects of Terminal Visual Feedback.
Facilitating Memory for Novel Characters by Reducing Neural Repetition Suppression in the Left Fusiform Cortex. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability. Generalization of Auditory Sensory and Cognitive Learning in Typically Developing Children. Hearing Loss and Cognition: The Role of Hearing Aids, Social Isolation and Depression.
Interval Timing in Children: Effects of Auditory and Visual Pacing Stimuli and Relationships with Reading and Attention Variables. Involvement of Right STS in Audio-Visual Integration for Affective Speech Demonstrated Using MEG. Looking at the Ventriloquist: Visual Outcome of Eye Movements Calibrates Sound Localization. Losing One's Hand: Visual-Proprioceptive Conflict Affects Touch Perception.
Maturation of the Language Network: From Inter- to Intrahemispheric Connectivities. Molecular Mapping of Movement-Associated Areas in the Avian Brain: A Motor Theory for Vocal Learning Origin. Musical Experience and the Aging Auditory System: Implications for Cognitive Abilities and Hearing Speech in Noise. Neural Adaptation and Behavioral Measures of Temporal Processing and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Recipients.
Neuroimaging of Reading Intervention: A Systematic Review and Activation Likelihood Estimate Meta-Analysis. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Longitudinal and Offspring Risk. Pediatric Health-Related Quality of Life: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Phonological Codes Constrain Output of Orthographic Codes via Sublexical and Lexical Routes in Chinese Written Production. Polarity-Dependent Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Effects on Central Auditory Processing. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species. Proprioceptive Feedback and Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Based Neuroprostheses.
Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters. Recalibration of the Multisensory Temporal Window of Integration Results from Changing Task Demands. Reduced Regional Brain Cortical Thickness in Patients with Heart Failure. Repeated Stimulus Exposure Alters the Way Sound Is Encoded in the Human Brain. Seeing Is Believing: Neural Representations of Visual Stimuli in Human Auditory Cortex Correlate with Illusory Auditory Perceptions. Sensorimotor Integration in Dyslexic Children under Different Sensory Stimulations.
Symptoms of ADHD in Children with High-Functioning Autism Are Related to Impaired Verbal Working Memory and Verbal Delayed Recall. Subgrouping the Autism “Spectrum": Reflections on DSM-5. The Functional Connectome of Speech Control. The Role of the Caudal Superior Parietal Lobule in Updating Hand Location in Peripheral Vision: Further Evidence from Optic Ataxia. The Role of Corpus Callosum Development in Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Processing. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum. Words from spontaneous conversational speech can be recognized with human-like accuracy by an error-driven learning algorithm that discriminates between meanings straight from smart acoustic features, bypassing the phoneme as recognition unit.