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PLOS 03/05/18 Ebolaviruses: New roles for old proteins. Abstract In 2014, the world witnessed the largest Ebolavirus outbreak in recorded history. The subsequent humanitarian effort spurred extensive research, significantly enhancing our understanding of ebolavirus replication and pathogenicity. The main functions of each ebolavirus protein have been studied extensively since the discovery of the virus in 1976; however, the recent expansion of ebolavirus research has led to the discovery of new protein functions.

These newly discovered roles are revealing new mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenicity, whilst enhancing our understanding of the broad functions of each ebolavirus viral protein (VP). Many of these new functions appear to be unrelated to the protein’s primary function during virus replication. Such new functions range from bystander T-lymphocyte death caused by VP40-secreted exosomes to new roles for VP24 in viral particle formation. Author summary Editor: Patricia V. Published: May 3, 2018 Introduction Fig 1.

Fig 2. PLOS 06/04/16 Predicting and Evaluating the Epidemic Trend of Ebola Virus Disease in the 2014-2015 Outbreak and the Effects of Intervention Measures. Abstract We constructed dynamic Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission models to predict epidemic trends and evaluate intervention measure efficacy following the 2014 EVD epidemic in West Africa. We estimated the effective vaccination rate for the population, with basic reproduction number (R0) as the intermediate variable. Periodic EVD fluctuation was analyzed by solving a Jacobian matrix of differential equations based on a SIR (susceptible, infective, and removed) model. A comprehensive compartment model was constructed to fit and predict EVD transmission patterns, and to evaluate the effects of control and prevention measures.

Citation: Guo Z, Xiao D, Li D, Wang X, Wang Y, Yan T, et al. (2016) Predicting and Evaluating the Epidemic Trend of Ebola Virus Disease in the 2014-2015 Outbreak and the Effects of Intervention Measures. Editor: Zhen Jin, Shanxi University, CHINA Received: November 6, 2015; Accepted: March 13, 2016; Published: April 6, 2016 Copyright: © 2016 Guo et al. Results. PLOS 18/05/17 The risk of transmission of a viral haemorrhagic fever infection in a United Kingdom laboratory. Citation: Shorten RJ, Wilson-Davies E (2017) The risk of transmission of a viral haemorrhagic fever infection in a United Kingdom laboratory. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11(5): e0005358. Editor: Sunit Kumar Singh, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), INDIA Published: May 18, 2017 Copyright: © 2017 Shorten, Wilson-Davies. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The 2013–2016 Ebola virus outbreak centred in West Africa is the largest ever recorded and has resulted in a substantial global response across Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. There has, understandably, been a rise in suspected cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in travellers returning to the UK from affected areas. There have been 18 confirmed cases of VHF imported to the UK since 1971 (Public Health England data). Viruses are either naked or enveloped in structure (Fig 1).

PLOS 02/02/17 Predicting Ebola Severity: A Clinical Prioritization Score for Ebola Virus Disease. Abstract Background Despite the notoriety of Ebola virus disease (EVD) as one of the world’s most deadly infections, EVD has a wide range of outcomes, where asymptomatic infection may be almost as common as fatality. With increasingly sensitive EVD diagnosis, there is a need for more accurate prognostic tools that objectively stratify clinical severity to better allocate limited resources and identify those most in need of intensive treatment.

Methods/Principal Findings This retrospective cohort study analyses the clinical characteristics of 158 EVD(+) patients at the GOAL-Mathaska Ebola Treatment Centre, Sierra Leone. Conclusions/Significance This study proposes highly predictive and easy-to-use prognostic tools, which stratify the risk of EVD mortality at or after EVD triage. Author Summary Citation: Hartley M-A, Young A, Tran A-M, Okoni-Williams HH, Suma M, Mancuso B, et al. (2017) Predicting Ebola Severity: A Clinical Prioritization Score for Ebola Virus Disease. Editor: Peter W. Methods. PLOS 15/11/16 Minimally Symptomatic Infection in an Ebola ‘Hotspot’: A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey. Abstract Introduction Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. During the 2013–16 outbreak in West Africa, it was not considered epidemiologically relevant to published models or projections of intervention effects.

In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized ‘hotspot.’ Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Sukudu, Kono District, Sierra Leone, from October 2015 to January 2016. A blood sample was collected from 187 study participants, 132 negative controls (individuals with a low likelihood of previous exposure to Ebola virus), and 30 positive controls (Ebola virus disease survivors). Conclusions/Significance Author Summary Editor: Daniel G. Received: May 24, 2016; Accepted: September 30, 2016; Published: November 15, 2016 Setting. PLOS 12/10/16 Predicting Subnational Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic Dynamics from Sociodemographic Indicators. Abstract Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has spread wider than any previous human EVD epidemic.

While individual-level risk factors that contribute to the spread of EVD have been studied, the population-level attributes of subnational regions associated with outbreak severity have not yet been considered. Methods To investigate the area-level predictors of EVD dynamics, we integrated time series data on cumulative reported cases of EVD from the World Health Organization and covariate data from the Demographic and Health Surveys. We first estimated the early growth rates of epidemics in each second-level administrative district (ADM2) in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia using exponential, logistic and polynomial growth models. Results The polynomial growth model appeared to best fit the ADM2 epidemic curves, displaying the lowest residual standard error. Discussion Editor: Linda A. Copyright: © 2016 Valeri et al. Introduction Materials and Methods. PLOS 23/08/16 Mortality, Morbidity and Health-Seeking Behaviour during the Ebola Epidemic 2014–2015 in Monrovia Results from a Mobile Phone Survey.

Abstract Between March 2014 and July 2015 at least 10,500 Ebola cases including more than 4,800 deaths occurred in Liberia, the majority in Monrovia. However, official numbers may have underestimated the size of the outbreak. Closure of health facilities and mistrust in existing structures may have additionally impacted on all-cause morbidity and mortality. To quantify mortality and morbidity and describe health-seeking behaviour in Monrovia, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) conducted a mobile phone survey from December 2014 to March 2015.

Author Summary During the Ebola outbreak in 2014/2015 more than 4,800 people died of Ebola in Liberia. Citation: Kuehne A, Lynch E, Marshall E, Tiffany A, Alley I, Bawo L, et al. (2016) Mortality, Morbidity and Health-Seeking Behaviour during the Ebola Epidemic 2014–2015 in Monrovia Results from a Mobile Phone Survey. Editor: Oladele B. Received: March 14, 2016; Accepted: July 12, 2016; Published: August 23, 2016 Copyright: © 2016 Kuehne et al. Methods. PLOS 19/07/16 Heterogeneity in District-Level Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease during the 2013-2015 Epidemic in West Africa. Abstract The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa in 2013–2015 spread heterogeneously across the three hardest-hit countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and the estimation of national transmission of EVD provides little information about local dynamics.

To investigate district-level transmissibility of EVD, we applied a statistical modelling approach to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) for each affected district and each country using weekly incident case numbers. We estimated growth rates during the early exponential phase of the outbreak using exponential regression of the case counts on the first eight weeks since onset. To take into account the heterogeneity between and within countries, we fitted a mixed effects model and calculated R0 based on the predicted individual growth rates and the reported serial interval distribution. Author Summary Editor: Andrew Fenton, University of Liverpool, UNITED KINGDOM Copyright: © 2016 Krauer et al.

Introduction A. PLOS 29/02/16 Presence and Persistence of Ebola or Marburg Virus in Patients and Survivors: A Rapid Systematic Review. Abstract Background The 2013–15 Ebola outbreak was unprecedented due to sustained transmission within urban environments and thousands of survivors. In 2014 the World Health Organization stated that there was insufficient evidence to give definitive guidance about which body fluids are infectious and when they pose a risk to humans. We report a rapid systematic review of published evidence on the presence of filoviruses in body fluids of infected people and survivors. Methods Scientific articles were screened for information about filovirus in human body fluids. Results 6831 unique articles were found, and after screening, 33 studies were eligible. Conclusions Filovirus was reported in most types of body fluid, but not in every sample from every otherwise confirmed patient.

Author Summary The 2013–15 Ebola outbreak has been much larger and lasted longer than any previous Ebola emergence, and is further unusual because of the thousands of survivors left behind. Editor: Daniel G. Introduction. PLOS 15/06/15 Acceptability and Willingness-to-Pay for a Hypothetical Ebola Virus Vaccine in Nigeria. Abstract Background Ebola virus disease is a highly virulent and transmissible disease.

The largest recorded fatality from Ebola virus disease epidemic is ongoing in a few countries in West Africa, and this poses a health risk to the entire population of the world because arresting the transmission has been challenging. Vaccination is considered a key intervention that is capable of arresting further spread of the disease and preventing future outbreak. Methods The study was a community-based cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative interventional study conducted in two communities, each in two states in Nigeria.

Results Ebola virus disease was considered to be a very serious disease by 38.5% of the 582 respondents (224/582), prior to receiving health education on Ebola virus and its vaccine. Conclusion Author Summary Ebola virus disease (EVD) is highly virulent and transmissible. Editor: Daniel G. Received: November 22, 2014; Accepted: May 18, 2015; Published: June 15, 2015 Introduction. PLOS 11/06/15 Mass Media and the Contagion of Fear: The Case of Ebola in America. Abstract Background In the weeks following the first imported case of Ebola in the U. S. on September 29, 2014, coverage of the very limited outbreak dominated the news media, in a manner quite disproportionate to the actual threat to national public health; by the end of October, 2014, there were only four laboratory confirmed cases of Ebola in the entire nation.

Public interest in these events was high, as reflected in the millions of Ebola-related Internet searches and tweets performed in the month following the first confirmed case. Use of trending Internet searches and tweets has been proposed in the past for real-time prediction of outbreaks (a field referred to as “digital epidemiology”), but accounting for the biases of public panic has been problematic. Methodology We examine daily Ebola-related Internet search and Twitter data in the U.

Conclusions Academic Editor: Christos A. Received: November 17, 2014; Accepted: May 5, 2015; Published: June 11, 2015 Introduction Fig 1. Data. PLOS 03/11/14 Conservancy of mAb Epitopes in Ebolavirus Glycoproteins of Previous and 2014 Outbreaks. Background: Several monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are being evaluated as treatment options for the current 2014 Ebola outbreak. But they were derived from and tested for protection against the older 1976 Mayinga or 1995 Kikwit Zaire Ebolaviruses (EBOV).

The EBOV sequences reported for the current outbreak contain several mutations whose significance remained to be established. Methods: We analyzed sequence and structural conservation of the Ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) epitopes for all experimentally identified protective mAbs published to date. Results: The conservancy analysis of protective mAb epitopes in the Ebolavirus glycoprotein sequences spanning all Ebola virus lineages since 1976 showed that conservancy within the Zaire EBOV lineage was high, with only one immunodominant epitope of mAb 13F6-1-2 acquiring two novel mutations in the 2014 outbreak that might potentially change the antibody specificity and neutralization activity.

Introduction Methods Results Conclusion. PLOS 09/07/14 Ebola Outbreak Response; Experience and Development of Screening Tools for Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) in a HIV Center of Excellence Near to VHF Epicentres. Abstract Introduction There have been 3 outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in Uganda in the last 2 years. VHF often starts with non-specific symptoms prior to the onset of haemorrhagic signs. HIV clinics in VHF outbreak countries such as Uganda see large numbers of patients with HIV 1/2 infection presenting with non-specific symptoms every day.

Methods We designed tools to help with communication to staff, infection control and screening of HIV patients with non-specific symptoms in a large HIV clinic during the outbreaks in Uganda. Results During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, enhanced infection control and communication procedures were implemented within 24 hours of the WHO/Ministry of Health announcement of the outbreaks. Discussion Editor: Jens H.

Received: March 28, 2014; Accepted: May 23, 2014; Published: July 9, 2014 Copyright: © 2014 Parkes-Ratanshi et al. Funding: These authors have no support or funding to report. Introduction Methods Ethical considerations Results. PLOS 02/09/14 Assessing the International Spreading Risk Associated with the 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak. Background: The 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak is so far the largest and deadliest recorded in history. The affected countries, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria, have been struggling to contain and to mitigate the outbreak. The ongoing rise in confirmed and suspected cases, 2615 as of 20 August 2014, is considered to increase the risk of international dissemination, especially because the epidemic is now affecting cities with major commercial airports.

Method: We use the Global Epidemic and Mobility Model to generate stochastic, individual based simulations of epidemic spread worldwide, yielding, among other measures, the incidence and seeding events at a daily resolution for 3,362 subpopulations in 220 countries. The mobility model integrates daily airline passenger traffic worldwide and the disease model includes the community, hospital, and burial transmission dynamic. We use a multimodel inference approach calibrated on data from 6 July to the date of 9 August 2014. Data. PLOS - PLOS Resources on Ebola. Virginia Barbour, Medicine & Biology Editorial Director at PLOS, on the urgent need for Open Access research into the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. This post was updated on November 21st to include new research published in PLOS Pathogens and new commentary published in PLOS Currents Outbreaks.

This post was updated on September 19th, October 9th, 15th and 17th, and November 2nd, 3rd, 13th and 14th to include new content from PLOS Currents Outbreaks, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases and Speaking of Medicine. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa probably began in Guinea in 2013, but it was only recognized properly in early 2014 and shows, at the time of writing, no sign of subsiding. The continuous human-to-human transmission of this new outbreak virus has become increasingly worrisome. There is an urgent need for research into all aspects of this Ebola outbreak. All of the PLOS publications are open to submissions on Ebola.

The Current Outbreak Maria A. K.A. Sara Gorman Caitlin M. PLOS 23/05/12 Recovery Potential of a Western Lowland Gorilla Population following a Major Ebola Outbreak: Results from a Ten Ye. PLOS 26/06/12 Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases? PLOS 20/10/11 Discovery of an Ebolavirus-Like Filovirus in Europe.

PLOS 24/05/11 The Use of a Mobile Laboratory Unit in Support of Patient Management and Epidemiological Surveillance during the 2. PLOS 03/11/14 Conservancy of mAb Epitopes in Ebolavirus Glycoproteins of Previous and 2014 Outbreaks.