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PLOS BLOG 18/12/14 Chagas disease is turning up in (un)likely places. Who is ready for it? Hello there! If you enjoy the content on Public Health Perspectives, consider subscribing for future posts via email or RSS feed. Please welcome another guest post by Charles Ebikeme. –Beth Chagas is a more dangerous and much more pervasive disease than we give it credit for. A tropical disease that is really no longer quarantined to the tropics, Chagas has been known to turn up in unlikely places — and those unlikely places are becoming more and more important. Chagas is also known as American trypanosomiasis, and is found mainly in Latin America, where it is mostly transmitted to humans by the faeces of the triatomine “kissing bug”. About 7 to 8 million people are estimated to be infected with Chagas worldwide. Recently, researchers at the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics demonstrated that bed bugs can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the infectious parasitic agent that causes Chagas disease.

Traditional distribution of Chagas’ disease by Tomato356 at Wikipedia. PLOS 31/07/14 Acute Chagas Disease: New Global Challenges for an Old Neglected Disease. Abstract Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. Citation: Andrade DV, Gollob KJ, Dutra WO (2014) Acute Chagas Disease: New Global Challenges for an Old Neglected Disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(7): e3010. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003010 Figure 1. PLOS 08/07/15 A Spatio-temporal Model of African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk. Abstract Background African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major constraint to sustainable development of cattle farming in sub-Saharan Africa. The habitat of the tsetse fly vector is increasingly fragmented owing to demographic pressure and shifts in climate, which leads to heterogeneous risk of cyclical transmission both in space and time. In Burkina Faso and Ghana, the most important vectors are riverine species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides, which are more resilient to human-induced changes than the savannah and forest species. Although many authors studied the distribution of AAT risk both in space and time, spatio-temporal models allowing predictions of it are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We used datasets generated by various projects, including two baseline surveys conducted in Burkina Faso and Ghana within PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign) national initiatives.

Conclusions/Significance Author Summary Study area. PLOS 24/03/15 Optimal Strategies for Controlling Riverine Tsetse Flies Using Targets: A Modelling Study. Abstract Background Tsetse flies occur in much of sub-Saharan Africa where they transmit the trypanosomes that cause the diseases of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. One of the most economical and effective methods of tsetse control is the use of insecticide-treated screens, called targets, that simulate hosts.

Targets have been ~1m2, but recently it was shown that those tsetse that occupy riverine situations, and which are the main vectors of sleeping sickness, respond well to targets only ~0.06m2. Methodology/Principal Findings A deterministic model, written in Excel spreadsheets and managed by Visual Basic for Applications, simulated the births, deaths and movement of tsetse confined to a strip of riverine vegetation composed of segments of habitat in which the tsetse population was either self-sustaining, or not sustainable unless supplemented by immigrants.

Conclusion/Significance Seasonal use of tiny targets deserves field trials. Author Summary Editor: José M. PLOS 26/04/11 Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain. Abstract Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009.

All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Author Summary Methods. PLOS 27/04/12 Public street lights increase house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata, vector of Chagas disease in the Yucatan pen. PLOS 27/04/12 Public Street Lights Increase House Infestation by the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata. Triatoma dimidiata is one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease. We previously documented the spatio-temporal infestation of houses by this species in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and found that non-domiciliated triatomines were specifically attracted to houses.

However, the factors mediating this attraction remained unclear. Artificial light has been known for a long time to attract many insect species, and therefore may contribute to the spread of different vector-borne diseases. Also, based on the collection of different species of triatomines with light traps, several authors have suggested that light might attract triatomines to houses, but the role of artificial light in house infestation has never been clearly demonstrated and quantified. Here we performed a spatial analysis of house infestation pattern by T. dimidiata in relation to the distribution of artificial light sources in three different villages from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

Figures Editor: Andres G. Results. PLOS 17/05/11 Evaluation of Spatially Targeted Strategies to Control Non-Domiciliated Triatoma dimidiata Vector of Chagas Diseas. PLOS 21/06/11 Community Participation in Chagas Disease Vector Surveillance: Systematic Review. Abstract Background Vector control has substantially reduced Chagas disease (ChD) incidence. However, transmission by household-reinfesting triatomines persists, suggesting that entomological surveillance should play a crucial role in the long-term interruption of transmission. Yet, infestation foci become smaller and harder to detect as vector control proceeds, and highly sensitive surveillance methods are needed.

Methodology/Principal Findings We searched Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, the bibliographies of retrieved studies, and our own records. Conclusions/Significance CP should become a strategic component of ChD surveillance, but only professional insecticide spraying seems consistently effective at eliminating infestation foci. Author Summary Blood-sucking triatomine bugs are the vectors of Chagas disease, a potentially fatal illness that affects millions in Latin America. Figures Editor: Ricardo E. Copyright: © 2011 Abad-Franch et al. Introduction Methods Figure 1.

PLOS 11/10/11 Managing Tsetse Transmitted Trypanosomosis by Insecticide Treated Nets - an Affordable and Sustainable Method for.