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Regeneration: what does it mean and how does it work? Regeneration and humans Regeneration means the regrowth of a damaged or missing organ part from the remaining tissue.

Regeneration: what does it mean and how does it work?

As adults, humans can regenerate some organs, such as the liver. If part of the liver is lost by disease or injury, the liver grows back to its original size, though not its original shape. Hyaluronan. Hyaluronan /haɪˈæljʊrənən/ (also called hyaluronic acid /ˌhaɪəl.jʊˈrɒnɨk/, hyaluronate /ˌhaɪəlˈjʊərəneɪt/ or /ˌhaɪəˈlʊərəneɪt/, or HA) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.


It is unique among glycosaminoglycans in that it is nonsulfated, forms in the plasma membrane instead of the Golgi, and can be very large, with its molecular weight often reaching the millions.[2] One of the chief components of the extracellular matrix, hyaluronan contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration, and may also be involved in the progression of some malignant tumors.[3] Structure[edit] Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Structure of the protein core of aggrecan or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 1 Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are proteoglycans consisting of a protein core and a chondroitin sulfate side chain.

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan

They are known to be structural components of a variety of human tissues, including cartilage, and also play key roles in neural development and glial scar formation. They are known to be involved in certain cell processes, such as cell adhesion, cell growth, receptor binding, cell migration, and interaction with other extracellular matrix constituents.[1] They are also known to interact with laminin, fibronectin, tenascin, and collagen.[1] CSPGs are generally secreted from cells.

Importantly, CSPGs are known to inhibit axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. CSPGs contribute to glial scar formation post injury, acting as a barrier against new axons growing into the injury site.[2] CSPGs play a crucial role in explaining why the spinal cord doesn't self-regenerate after an injury. Myxomatous degeneration. Myxomatous degeneration refers to a pathological weakening of connective tissue.

Myxomatous degeneration

The term is most often used in the context of mitral valve prolapse, which is known more technically as "myxomatous mitral valve degeneration. " The degeneration occurs in conjunction with an accumulation of dermatan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan, within the connective tissue matrix of the valve. Multicellularity - A Design Framework for Evolution. Although the eukaryotic cells as the masis of all multicellular organism has been the same, the way that led to multicellula rlife has diverged within the eukaryotic lineages.

Multicellularity - A Design Framework for Evolution

Within each linage, cells have formed into limbs and organs and specialied cell types have evolved. The developmental sequence of events that leads to multicellular organisms and the dependecies in these sequences reflects major branch points in evolution. In the life cycle of eukaryotes we see a central fusion event of two cells. This causes the fused cell to have double the number of chromosomes (diploid). Phosphodiesterase. A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is any enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond.


Usually, people speaking of phosphodiesterase are referring to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, which have great clinical significance and are described below. However, there are many other families of phosphodiesterases, including phospholipases C and D, autotaxin, sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, DNases, RNases, and restriction endonucleases (which all break the phosphodiester backbone of DNA or RNA), as well as numerous less-well-characterized small-molecule phosphodiesterases. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases comprise a group of enzymes that degrade the phosphodiester bond in the second messenger molecules cAMP and cGMP. They regulate the localization, duration, and amplitude of cyclic nucleotide signaling within subcellular domains.

Transducin. Sensory rhodopsin II (rainbow colored) embedded in a lipid bilayer (heads red and tails blue) with Transducin below it.


Gtα is colored red, Gtβ blue, and Gtγ yellow. There is a bound GDP molecule in the Gtα-subunit and a bound retinal (black) in the rhodopsin. The N-terminus terminus of rhodopsin is red and the C-terminus blue. Anchoring of transducin to the membrane has been drawn in black. AccessSurgery - Print. Surgical Anatomy Knowledge of detailed cardiac anatomy is a prerequisite for successful surgery.

AccessSurgery - Print

Nowhere is this more important than in the setting of congenital cardiac malformations. —R.H. Anderson, B.R. AccessSurgery - Print. Search: Periostin. Untitled. My research interests focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying early cardiac cell specification, differentiation, and heart organogenesis.


Specifically, we target the cardiac precursor cell population. Currently, we are analyzing effects of alcohol inducing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, of lithium and homocysteine, and the mechanism by which folate and with even greater efficacy, folate/myo-inositol combination prevents cardiac birth defects induced by these environmental factors. These studies have been extended into aspects of wound healing. My research interests focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying early cardiac cell specification, differentiation, and heart organogenesis. Specifically, we target the cardiac precursor cell population.

Axolotl and thyroid

Untitled. Katyaxolotl. Objective This experiment will seek to demonstrate regulative development in Ambystoma mexicanum embryos.


Specifically, we will split the morphogenetic field that is responsible for heart formation using grafted tissue from the gill area, and attempt to form two hearts – one on either side of the grafted tissue. TGF beta signaling pathway. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. In spite of the wide range of cellular processes that the TGFβ signaling pathway regulates, the process is relatively simple. TGFβ superfamily ligands bind to a type II receptor, which recruits and phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor then phosphorylates receptor-regulated SMADs (R-SMADs) which can now bind the coSMAD SMAD4. R-SMAD/coSMAD complexes accumulate in the nucleus where they act as transcription factors and participate in the regulation of target gene expression.

Randal Voss - Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center at UK. Axolotl Embryo Staging Series. S - Embryo Photo Log. Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center. Welcome to Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center The Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center (AGSC) maintains a breeding colony of Mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) and distributes axolotl embryos, larvae, and adults to laboratories and classrooms throughout the United States and abroad. The AGSC is located in the Department of Biology at the University of Kentucky and receives financial support from the Division of Biological Infrastructure (DBI) at the National Science Foundation. Book - The Frog Its Reproduction and Development 11 - Embryology. Frog Development (1951): Introduction | Rana pipiens | Reproductive System | Fertilization | Cleavage | Blastulation | Gastrulation | Neurulation | Early Embryo Changes | Later Embryo or Larva | Ectodermal Derivatives | Endodermal Derivatives | Mesodermal Derivatives | Summary of Organ Appearance | Glossary | Bibliography | Figures The Brain The primary embryonic brain of the frog has three main subdivisions.

The most anterior of these, the prosencephalon, alone becomes further subdivided into two regions, the telencephalon and the diencephalon. Cardiac Embryology - Embryology. This website is an educational resource designed to teach human cardiac embryology and is a Medicine ILP project carried out by Phoebe Norville. Heart development represents an important area of both embryological and clinical studies, predominantly due to the high incidence of congenital heart disease in the community. Therefore this website aims to teach cardiac embryology to students of all ages with varying degrees of knowledge in the area. The module contains three different levels: Basic - begin here if you are new to heart embryology (high school level) Intermediate - begin here if you have some background in heart embryology (university level) Advanced - begin here after you have completed the earlier levels and have a good background in heart embryology (university level) Your initial knowledge level determines your start level.

Each unit also has two sets of navigation panels and a timeline, to help work through the cardiac embryology modules. Basic module Intermediate module. How Salamanders Sprout New Limbs. Limb loss for a salamander is nothing to get up in arms about—they just re-grow a new one. But how? One molecule could be behind their remarkable limb-sprouting ability, according to a new study that could also grow the field of human regenerative medicine.

The ability to conjure up an arm or leg after amputation works only in Hollywood, like when boy-wizard Harry Potter endures the pain of re-growing arm bones. Real regenerative medicine lags far behind fiction. While some political barriers to the stem-cell research required in regenerative medicine have been eliminated and private stem-cell funding has stepped up, the many scientific unknowns of regenerating limbs and organs have hindered progress. A few years ago, a man in Cincinnati who accidentally severed a fingertip applied a substance made from pig bladder thought to promote tissue regeneration. Limb loss Stem cells have the ability to differentiate, or specialize into various tissues needed to create body parts. PLOS ONE: Transcriptomic Analysis of Endangered Chinese Salamander: Identification of Immune, Sex and Reproduction-Related Genes and Genetic Markers.

Periostin. Fasciclin domain. In molecular biology, the fasciclin domain (FAS1 domain) is an extracellular domain of about 140 amino acid residues. Fasciclin 2. Other roles for fasII include delineating two axonal pathways in the adult ocellar sensory system (OSS) via its expression on ocellar pioneer (OP) neurons where it acts to promote neurite outgrowth from primary neurons (along with neuroglian) by activating fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling.[2] In addition, fasII has been shown to be involved in synaptic target selection, stabilization and remodeling along with several proteins such as netrins, semaphorins and other Ig-CAMs.[2] See also[edit]

Matricellular protein. A matricellular protein is dynamically expressed non-structural protein that is present in the extracellular matrix (ECM).[1][2] Rather than serving as stable structural elements in the ECM, these proteins are rapidly turned over and have regulatory roles. Genome size, cell size, and the evolution of enucleated erythrocytes in attenuate salamanders. Salamander Biology – Anatomy and Physiology. The salamanders are one-half inch in length when they hatch and grow to about 3 inches in total length as adults.

They have a muscular tail used for swimming. Hedgehog Signaling Controls Dorsal Ventral Patterning and Induction of Axolotl Tail Regeneration. This blog is based off the paper “Hedgehog signaling controls dorsoventral patterning, blastema cell proliferation and cartilage induction during axolotl tail regeneration” by Ester Schnapp, Martin Kragl, Lee Rubin, and Elly M. Tanaka in the Development Journal, 2005. S - Rearing from Egg to Adult. Introduction I first bred axolotls successfully in the late 1990s. Thankfully I was very successful. By following the advice and directions on this page, you should be too. Regulative Development in Axolotl Embryos; Splitting the Heart Field - 发育生物学 - 资讯 - 生物在线. Cardiovascular System Development - Embryology. Introduction. S - Embryo Photo Log. Developmental Biology Interactive.

Fibroblasts are the Critical Cells in Salamander Limb Regeneration » UC Irvine Limb Regeneration. McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine. Fossil has evidence of limb regeneration in 300 million year old amphibian. Making News » UC Irvine Limb Regeneration. Mexican Axolotl Provides Insights into Potential of Human Regenerative Medicine. Regeneration: what does it mean and how does it work?

S - Requirements & Water Conditions in Captivity. ZFIN Figure: Mugoni et al., 2013, Fig. 1. Caudata Culture Species Entry - Crested Triturus species.