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Art Moderne & Contemporain [en cours...]

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Art moderne. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'appellation d'art moderne désigne une période de l'histoire de l'art qui est initiée par Édouard Manet et les peintres impressionnistes dans les années 1870 et s'achève au milieu des années 1950, notamment avec la naissance du pop art[1]. L'art moderne se caractérise par une rupture avec les canons de la figuration de l'art classique[2]. La notion d'« art moderne »[modifier | modifier le code] Dans Le Peintre de la vie moderne, Baudelaire trouve la beauté dans la rue et il la voit changeante, mobile ; chez l'artiste moderne, il salue l'aptitude à dégager du transitoire du quotidien l'éternel de la beauté.

D'un point de vue institutionnel, l'émergence de la modernité ébranle l'Académie dans son pouvoir d'autoriser ou non l'entrée d'une œuvre au Salon. Les peintres « hors-académie » refuseront finalement d'être exposés à côté des peintres académiques. Naissance de l'« art moderne »[modifier | modifier le code] Expressionism.

Abstraction

Abstract expressionism. Cubisme. Dada. Dada (/ˈdɑːdɑː/) or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Dada in Zurich, Switzerland, began in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter, but the height of New York Dada was the year before, in 1915.[1] The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 when he created his first readymades.[2] Dada, in addition to being anti-war, had political affinities with the radical left and was also anti-bourgeois.[3] Francis Picabia, Dame! Illustration for the cover of the periodical Dadaphone, n. 7, Paris, March 1920 Overview[edit] Francis Picabia, (left) Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait, 1 July 1915; (center) Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité, 5 July 1915: (right) J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas!

De Zayas! Je suis venu sur les rivages du Pont-Euxin, New York, 1915 To quote Dona Budd's The Language of Art Knowledge, History[edit] Zurich[edit] André Breton. André Breton (French: [ɑ̃dʁe bʁətɔ̃]; 19 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer and poet. He is known best as the founder of Surrealism. His writings include the first Surrealist Manifesto (Manifeste du surréalisme) of 1924, in which he defined surrealism as "pure psychic automatism". Biography[edit] Born to a family of modest means in Tinchebray (Orne) in Normandy, he studied medicine and psychiatry. During World War I he worked in a neurological ward in Nantes, where he met the devotee of Alfred Jarry, Jacques Vaché, whose anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition influenced Breton considerably.

Vaché committed suicide at age 24, and his war-time letters to Breton and others were published in a volume entitled Lettres de guerre (1919), for which Breton wrote four introductory essays. Breton married his first wife, Simone Kahn, on 15 September 1921. From Dada to Surrealism[edit] 1940s[edit] Later life[edit] Breton in the 1960s Marriages[edit]

Surrealism

Marcel Duchamp. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Duchamp. Marcel Duchamp Marcel Duchamp (né à Blainville-Crevon, le et mort à Neuilly-sur-Seine, le ) est un peintre, plasticien, homme de lettres français, naturalisé américain en 1955. Considéré par beaucoup comme l'artiste le plus important du XXe siècle, il est qualifié également par André Breton d'« homme le plus intelligent du siècle ». Inventeur des ready-made, sa démarche artistique exerce une influence majeure sur les différents courants de l'art contemporain. Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Origines familiales[modifier | modifier le code] « J'ai eu une vie absolument merveilleuse. » — Marcel Duchamp[1] Né dans la Seine-Maritime, Henri Robert Marcel Duchamp est le fils du notaire de Blainville-Crevon, Justin Isidore Duchamp (dit « Eugène »), et de Marie Caroline Lucie née Nicolle, musicienne accomplie.

Débuts : tableaux et dessins[modifier | modifier le code] Il fut un excellent joueur d'échecs. Nu Duchamp.

Pop Art

Fluxus. Fluxus—a name taken from a Latin word meaning "flow, flux" (noun); "flowing, fluid" (adj.)[1]—is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. They have been active in Neo-Dada noise music and visual art as well as literature, urban planning, architecture, and design. Fluxus is sometimes described as intermedia. The Fluxus movement... developed its 'anti-art', anti-commercial aesthetics under the leadership of George Maciunas. Fluxus staged a series of festivals in Paris, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, London and New York, with avant-garde performances often spilling out into the street. Most of the experimental artists of the period, including Joseph Beuys, Yoko Ono and Nam June Paik, took part in Fluxus events. History to 1965[edit] Origins[edit] Flux Year Box 2, c.1967, a Flux box edited and produced by George Maciunas, containing works by many early Fluxus artists.

Early Fluxus and Neo-Dada[edit] Joseph Beuys. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. + Jeder Mensch ein Künstler — Auf dem Weg zur Freiheitsgestalt des sozialen Organismus, 1978 + Chaque personne un artiste — sur la voie de la forme libertaire de l'organisme social (performance) Affiche pour le dialogue à la New School pendant la première visite de Joseph Beuys aux États-Unis en 1974 - Courtesy Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York À la fois controversé et admiré, Joseph Beuys est considéré comme le pendant allemand des artistes Fluxus, et compte au niveau international comme l’un des artistes allemand majeurs de l’art contemporain. §Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Sa naissance commence déjà par une fiction. Il déclarait être né à Clèves et non à Krefeld. Un événement va être déterminant pour la suite de sa vie : pilote de la Luftwaffe sur le front russe pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, il s’écrase en Crimée.

Dès lors, à partir de la fin de la guerre, il devient la figure emblématique du mouvement Bewegung. John Cage. Not to be confused with John Cale. John Cage Cage is perhaps best known for his 1952 composition 4′33″, which is performed in the absence of deliberate sound; musicians who present the work do nothing aside from being present for the duration specified by the title. The content of the composition is not "four minutes and 33 seconds of silence," as is sometimes assumed, but rather the sounds of the environment heard by the audience during performance.[7][8] The work's challenge to assumed definitions about musicianship and musical experience made it a popular and controversial topic both in musicology and the broader aesthetics of art and performance.

Cage was also a pioneer of the prepared piano (a piano with its sound altered by objects placed between or on its strings or hammers), for which he wrote numerous dance-related works and a few concert pieces. The best known of these is Sonatas and Interludes (1946–48).[9] Life[edit] 1912–31: Early years[edit] 1931–36: Apprenticeship[edit] Art contemporain. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'expression « art contemporain » désigne de façon générale et globale l'ensemble des œuvres produites depuis 1945 à nos jours, et ce quels qu'en soient le style et la pratique esthétique.

Dans cette classification périodique, l'art contemporain succède à l'art moderne (1850-1945). Cette désignation s'applique également aux musées, institutions, galeries, foires, salons, biennales montrant les œuvres de cette période. Qu'est-ce que l'art contemporain ? [modifier | modifier le code] La notion de « contemporanéité » est d’abord une notion historique. Selon cette approche, la période contemporaine commencerait à partir de 1945[5], avec la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et, par commodité, la plupart des études traitent de la période qui débute en 1945 et va jusqu'à aujourd'hui. « Contemporanéité » signifie aussi « simultanéité ». De nouvelles références permettent de définir ce qu'est la méthode contemporaine.

. « L'art contemporain ? Constantin Brâncusi. Early years[edit] Brâncuși grew up in the village of Hobiţa, Gorj, near Târgu Jiu, close to Romania's Carpathian Mountains, an area known for its rich tradition of folk crafts, particularly woodcarving. Geometric patterns of the region are seen in his later works. His parents Nicolae and Maria Brâncuși were poor peasants who earned a meager living through back-breaking labor; from the age of seven, Constantin herded the family's flock of sheep. He showed talent for carving objects out of wood, and often ran away from home to escape the bullying of his father and older brothers.

At the age of nine, Brâncuși left the village to work in the nearest large town. He then enrolled in the Bucharest School of Fine Arts, where he received academic training in sculpture. Working in Paris[edit] In 1903, Brâncuși traveled to Munich, and from there to Paris. After leaving Rodin's workshop, Brâncuși began developing the revolutionary style for which he is known. Personal life[edit] Death and legacy[edit] Henry Moore. Henry Spencer Moore OM CH FBA RBS (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English sculptor and artist. He was best known for his semi-abstract monumental bronze sculptures which are located around the world as public works of art. His forms are usually abstractions of the human figure, typically depicting mother-and-child or reclining figures. Moore's works are usually suggestive of the female body, apart from a phase in the 1950s when he sculpted family groups.

His forms are generally pierced or contain hollow spaces. Moore was born in Castleford, the son of a coal miner. Early life[edit] Moore was born in Castleford, West Yorkshire, England, to Mary Baker and Raymond Spencer Moore. On his second attempt he was accepted at Castleford Grammar School, where his headmaster soon noticed his talent and interest in medieval sculpture,[3] and which several of his siblings had attended.

Beginnings as a sculptor[edit] Hampstead[edit] World War Two[edit] At the Coal Face. Later years[edit] Barbara Hepworth. Dame Barbara Hepworth DBE (10 January 1903 – 20 May 1975) was an English artist and sculptor. Her work exemplifies Modernism and in particular modern sculpture. She was "one of the few women artists to achieve international prominence. "[1] Along with artists such as Ben Nicholson and Naum Gabo, Hepworth was a leading figure in the colony of artists who resided in St Ives during the Second World War. Early life[edit] Early career[edit] Hepworth also helped raise awareness of continental artists amongst the British public.

Hepworth married the painter Ben Nicholson on 17 November 1938 at Hampstead Register Office, following his divorce from his wife Winifred.[9] The couple had triplets in 1934, Simon, Rachel and Sarah; Simon and Rachel also became artists. St. Hepworth, her husband Ben Nicholson and their children first visited Cornwall at the outbreak of the war in 1939.[11] Hepworth was also a skilled draughtsman.

Death of son Paul[edit] Late career[edit] Galleries holding her work[edit] TateShots - Barbara Hepworth. ||Impressionism|| Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists. Their independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s, in spite of harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.

Overview[edit] Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting. They constructed their pictures from freely brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eugène Delacroix and J. Impressionism emerged in France at the same time that a number of other painters, including the Italian artists known as the Macchiaioli, and Winslow Homer in the United States, were also exploring plein-air painting. Auguste Rodin. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Auguste Rodin Auguste Rodin (René François Auguste Rodin[1]), né à Paris le et mort à Meudon le , est l'un des plus importants sculpteurs français de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, considéré comme un des pères de la sculpture moderne[2].

Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Auguste Rodin naît le dans une famille modeste d'origine et meurt à Meudon le 17 novembre 1917 . Son père Jean-Baptiste était d'origine normande, s'étant installé à Paris en 1830 comme garçon de bureau à la préfecture de police, sa mère Marie Cheffer d'origine lorraine. Du premier mariage de son père avec Gabrielle Cateneau, il eut une demi-sœur, Clothilde, qui semble être écartée de la famille après le deuxième mariage de Jean-Baptiste. Auguste eut une sœur aînée, Maria[3]. Formation[modifier | modifier le code] En partie à cause de sa forte myopie, il mena des études médiocres, dont il gardera longtemps le handicap d'une faible maîtrise du français. La Tempête. Vincent van Gogh.

Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch: [ˈvɪnsɛnt ˈʋɪləm vɑn ˈɣɔx] ( );[note 1] 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Post-Impressionist painter of Dutch origin whose work—notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty, and bold color—had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. After years of painful anxiety and frequent bouts of mental illness,[1][2] he died aged 37 from a gunshot wound, generally accepted to be self-inflicted (although no gun was ever found).[3][note 2] Letters Vincent c. 1873 aged 19. Although many are undated, art historians have generally been able to put them in chronological order. Biography Early life Vincent c. 1866, approx. age 13 As a child, Vincent was serious, silent, and thoughtful. The house "Holme Court" in Isleworth, where Van Gogh stayed in 1876 [23][24] Van Gogh returned to England for unpaid work as a supply teacher in a small boarding school overlooking the harbor in Ramsgate, where he made sketches of the view.

Etten, Drenthe and The Hague Emerging artist. Paul Cézanne. Paul Cézanne (US /seɪˈzæn/ or UK /sɨˈzæn/; French: [pɔl sezan]; 1839–1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne's often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects. Cézanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism.

Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cézanne "is the father of us all. " §Life and work[edit] §Early years and family[edit] Femme au Chapeau Vert (Woman in a Green Hat. §Cézanne the artist[edit] In Paris, Cézanne met the Impressionist Camille Pissarro. §Optical phenomena[edit] §Death[edit] Claude Monet. A trier.