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In Greco-Roman mythology , Aeneas ( pron.: / ɪ ˈ n iː ə s / ; Greek : Αἰνείας , Aineías , derived from Greek Αἰνή meaning "to praise") was a Trojan hero , the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite . His father was the second cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas Priam's second cousin, once removed. He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer 's Iliad , and receives full treatment in Roman mythology as the legendary founder of what would become Ancient Rome , most extensively in Virgil 's Aeneid . [ edit ] Literary genealogy In the Iliad , Aeneas is a minor character, where he is twice saved from death by the gods as if for an as-yet unknown destiny. He is the leader of the Trojans' Dardanian allies, as well as a third cousin and principal lieutenant of Hector , son of the Trojan king Priam .
Henry Livingston, Jr. (13 October 1748 - 29 February 1828) has been proposed as being the uncredited author of the poem " A Visit from St. Nicholas ", more popularly known (after its first line) as " The Night Before Christmas ." The poem has always been attributed to Clement Clarke Moore , and the Livingston claim is hotly disputed. [ edit ] Biography He was born on 13, October 1748 in Poughkeepsie, New York , to Henry Livingston, Sr. and Susannah Conklin. [ 1 ] In 1774, Livingston married Sarah Welles, the daughter of Reverend Noah Welles, the minister of the Stamford, Connecticut Congregational Church. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Their daughter Catherine was born shortly before Livingston joined the army on a six months' enlistment.
Clement Clarke Moore (July 15, 1779 – July 10, 1863) was a Professor of Oriental and Greek Literature, as well as Divinity and Biblical Learning, at the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Located on land donated by the "Bard of Chelsea" himself, the seminary still stands today on Ninth Avenue between 20th and 21st Streets, in an area known as Chelsea Square. Moore's connection with that institution continued for over twenty-five years. He is the author of the yuletide poem " A Visit from St.
Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337). The Star of Bethlehem is shown as a comet above the child. Giotto witnessed an appearance of Halley's Comet in 1301. In Christian tradition, the Star of Bethlehem , also called the Christmas Star , [ 1 ] revealed the birth of Jesus to the Biblical Magi , and later led them to Bethlehem .
Santa Claus and seven of his reindeer in a parade in Toronto 2007. Santa Claus' reindeer is a team of flying reindeer traditionally held to pull the sleigh of Santa Claus and help him deliver Christmas gifts. The commonly cited names of the reindeer are Dasher , Dancer , Prancer , Vixen , Comet , Cupid , Donder (or Donner) , and Blitzen .
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a fictional reindeer . A male Reindeer with a glowing red nose he is popularly known as " Santa's 9th Reindeer " and, when depicted, is the lead reindeer pulling Santa's sleigh on Christmas Eve . The luminosity of his nose is so great that it illuminates the team's path through inclement winter weather . Rudolph first appeared in a 1939 booklet written by Robert L.
Contemporary Paganism , Modern Paganism , or Neopaganism , is an umbrella term referring to a variety of contemporary religious movements , particularly those influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe. Although they do share commonalities, contemporary Pagan religious movements are diverse and no single set of beliefs, practices, or texts are shared by them all. Contemporary Paganism is a synthesis of historical practice and modern innovation, drawing influences from pre-Christian, folkloric and ethnographic sources. The extent to which contemporary Pagans use these sources differs.
The Horned God is one of the two primary deities found in some neopagan religions. He is often given various names and epithets, and represents the male part of the religion's duotheistic theological system , the other part being the female Triple Goddess or other Mother Goddess . [ citation needed ] In common Wiccan belief, he is associated with nature, wilderness, sexuality, hunting and the life cycle. [ 1 ] :32-34 Whilst depictions of the deity vary, he is always shown with either horns or antlers upon his head, often depicted as being theriocephalic , in this way emphasizing "the union of the divine and the animal", the latter of which includes humanity . [ 2 ] :11
The Triple Goddess is the subject of much of the writing of Robert Graves , and has been adopted by many neopagans (notably Wiccans) as one of their primary deities . The term triple goddess is infrequently used outside of Neopaganism to instead refer to historical goddess triads and single goddesses of three forms or aspects. In common Neopagan usage the three female figures are frequently described as the Maiden , the Mother , and the Crone , each of which symbolizes both a separate stage in the female life cycle and a phase of the moon, and often rules one of the realms of earth, underworld, and the heavens.
Mistletoe is the common name for obligate hemi-parasitic plants in several families in the order Santalales . These plants grow attached to and penetrating within the branches of a tree or shrub by a structure called the haustorium , through which they absorb nutrients from the host plant. [ edit ] Mistletoe in the genus Viscum The name was originally applied to Viscum album (European Mistletoe, Santalaceae ), the only species native in Great Britain and much of Europe . European mistletoe, Viscum album is readily recognized by its smooth-edged oval evergreen leaves borne in pairs along the woody stem, and waxy white berries in dense clusters of 2 to 6.
The Prose Edda begins with a euhemerized Prologue followed by three distinct books: Gylfaginning (consisting of around 20,000 words), Skáldskaparmál (around 50,000 words) and Háttatal (around 20,000 words). Seven manuscripts, dating from around 1300 to around 1600, have independent textual value. The purpose of the collection was to enable Icelandic poets and readers to understand the subtleties of alliterative verse , and to grasp the meaning behind the many kenningar (compounds) that were used in skaldic poetry . The Prose Edda was originally referred to as simply the Edda , but was later called the Prose Edda to distinguish it from the Poetic Edda , a collection of anonymous poetry from earlier traditional sources compiled around the same time as the Prose Edda in 13th century Iceland. [ 1 ] The Prose Edda is related to the Poetic Edda in that the Prose Edda cites various poems collected in the Poetic Edda as sources. [ 2 ]
Yule or Yuletide ("Yule time") is a religious festival observed by the Northern European peoples, later being absorbed into and equated with the Christian festival of Christmas . The earliest references to Yule are by way of indigenous Germanic month names ( Ærra Jéola (Before Yule) or Jiuli and Æftera Jéola (After Yule). Scholars have connected the celebration to the Wild Hunt , the god Odin and the pagan Anglo-Saxon Modranicht .