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Frustule. Frustules from some algae species A frustule is the hard and porous cell wall or external layer of diatoms.


The frustule is composed almost purely of silica, made from silicic acid, and is coated with a layer of organic substance, which was referred to in the early literature on diatoms as pectin, a fiber most commonly found in cell walls of plants.[1][2] This layer is actually composed of several types of polysaccharides.[3] The frustule's structure is usually composed of two overlapping sections known as thecae (or less formally as valves). The join between the two thecae is supported by bands of silica (girdle bands) that hold them together.

This overlapping allows for some internal expansion room and is essential during the reproduction process. Thecae[edit] A frustule is usually composed of two identically shaped but slightly differently sized thecae. Diatoms[edit] Diatom skeletons and their uses[edit] Frustule formation[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Animal Welfare. Ensuring the highest standards of care in animal testing Before any new treatment can be used in humans, it must first be tested in animals to determine that it is safe and effective.

Animal Welfare

The appropriate and responsible use of these experiments is an indispensable part of biomedical research. We appreciate and take seriously public concern about the use of animals in medical research. We thus are committed to: using only animal experiments where required to by law or where no scientifically-acceptable alternative is availableensuring that all tests on animals are carried out responsiblydeveloping alternatives to animal testing About alternatives to animal testing Like all research-based healthcare companies, Roche conducts animal tests as required by regulatory authorities.

We invest significantly in the development of testing methods that do not require animals, such as the use of computer simulation or isolated cells grown in a petri dish . LifeLearn Sofie. Ancient wolf genome pushes back dawn of the dog. Love Dalén/Cell DNA from a small piece of rib bone (pictured, top) from an 35,000-year-old wolf from Taymyr, Siberia, suggests that dogs and wolves may have split 27,000 to 40,000 years ago.

Ancient wolf genome pushes back dawn of the dog

A bone from the lower jaw of a slightly older Taymyr wolf, found in the same expedition, is also pictured (bottom). The genome of an ancient wolf from Siberia is adding weight to evidence that humans domesticated dogs thousands of years earlier than generally thought — perhaps as far back as 40,000 years ago.

The first dogs might have been hunting companions for early humans as they settled Europe and Asia during the last Ice Age, researchers suggest. It has proven hard to pin down exactly when humans domesticated dogs from wolves. New Organica. Gibbons found to communicate with soft 'hoos' about predators and neighbours. Biologists at Durham University spent four months recording gibbon callsThey recorded gibbons making 450 'hoo' calls from 25 animals that were impossible to distinguish with the human ear and were often inaudibleEach call was found to relate to different contexts like foraging, meeting neighbours, singing to mates or warning others about a predator nearby Hoos about birds of prey were the quietest so not to alert the predators By Richard Gray for MailOnline Published: 00:00 GMT, 8 April 2015 | Updated: 14:52 GMT, 10 April 2015 It is seen as extremely rude in most human societies, but it appears apes also use whispers to pass on information they do not want others to hear.

Gibbons found to communicate with soft 'hoos' about predators and neighbours

In Australia, cosying up to the wombat. By A.

In Australia, cosying up to the wombat

Odysseus Patrick CEDAR CREEK, Australia — On a recent weekend, as I sat cross-legged on the small lawn at the Cedar Creek Wombat Hospital about 100 miles north of Sydney, a 10-month-old wombat, about 15 inches long, walked onto my lap. I wrapped an arm around the animal between its fore and hind legs and pulled it upright against my stomach, like you might do with a small, friendly dog. Saola. The Saola, Vu Quang ox or Asian biocorn, also, infrequently, Vu Quang bovid (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), is one of the world's rarest mammals, a forest-dwelling bovine found only in the Annamite Range of Vietnam and Laos.


Cousin to cattle, goats, and antelopes,[2][3] the species was defined following a discovery of remains in 1992 in Vũ Quang Nature Reserve by a joint survey of the Ministry of Forestry and the World Wide Fund for Nature.[4] The team found three skulls with unusual, long, straight horns kept in hunters' houses. In their article, the team proposed "a three month survey to observe the living animal", but more than 20 years later, still no sighting of a saola in the wild had been reported by a scientist.

However, a living saola was photographed in the wild in 1999 by a camera trap set by the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Vietnamese government’s Forest Protection Department (SFNC). Habitat and distribution[edit] Taxonomy[edit] Physical characteristics[edit] Diet[edit] An Unlikely Pairing. Dolphins and Fishermen For years, resident bottlenose dolphins in Laguna, Brazil, have helped local fishermen catch schools of fish.

An Unlikely Pairing

Like marine sheepdogs, the Laguna dolphins herd fish toward the shore where the fishermen wait, and then slap their heads or tails against the surf when the fish are close enough to be caught by fishing nets. Science finds a new way to unboil an egg - CNET. The modern world is awash with public touch screens, from airplane TVs to ATMs to deli-counter kiosks.

Science finds a new way to unboil an egg - CNET

And with all those shared screens comes more potential to share germs. Glassmaker Corning, whose tough Gorilla Glass displays front Apple's iPhone and Samsung's new Galaxy S6, is hoping to make our more-touchable electronics world a little less grimy, thanks to its antimicrobial version of Gorilla. The new product, introduced last year, is now making its way into more public places, with Corning in January announcing deals to bring the germ-fighting glass to ATMs and payment terminals.

The glass is already on an office touch screen made by Steelcase used to book conference rooms. New Organica. Giving an old bee a youngster's job causes brain rejuvenation. Right?

Giving an old bee a youngster's job causes brain rejuvenation

I have a terrible, uneducated, sneaking suspicion that the media are confusing the reappearance in old bees of proteins normally found in young bees to the arrival of 'brain rejuvenation' processes. Like looking at a brain scan of a geriatric human being skipping rope who is also looking at a picture of their childhood home and *shock* finding that the same areas of the brain light up as the brain of a seven year-old. ISRN Tropical Medicine Volume 2013 (2013), A Review of Some Protozoan Parasites Causing Infertility in Farm Animals. This New Finding Explains Why Bees Are Disappearing. The secret is out – bees have been disappearing for almost a decade now, and scientists are scrambling to understand why.

This New Finding Explains Why Bees Are Disappearing

Some sources relay that the colonies all across the world are vanishing due to pesticides, electromagnetic frequencies, mites, and even GMO crops, but what researches have recently found to be the cause of the bee catastrophe will shock you. According to a recent report in Quartz, a first-of-its-kind study determined that large numbers of bees are dying due to cross-contamination of pollen and various pesticides. “Scientists had struggled to find the trigger for so-called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) that has wiped out an estimated 10 million beehives, worth $2 billion, over the past six years. […] Scientists at the University of Maryland and the US Department of Agriculture have identified a witch’s brew of pesticides and fungicides contaminating pollen that bees collect to feed their hives.

6 Amazingly Intelligent Animals (That Will Creep You Out) Animals may be extremely well-organized and insanely ballsy, but we'll always have one giant advantage over them: our intelligence. Also, cars and rocket launchers and such. But thinking is what makes us human, and thinking means we'll always be the ruling species on this planet, because the rest of those guys are really stupid. Well ... not all of them. Why animals can’t resist touchscreen technology. Whether it’s apes, bears or penguins, animals can’t enough of touchscreens, says Jason G Goldman, and it’s revealing intriguing things about their behaviour.

Esme, Molly, Quinn, and Emily live together in Austria. Their favourite foods are mushrooms, sweetcorn, and strawberries, and their hobbies include playing games on their touchscreen tablets. These four gamers, however, are not human – they are red-footed tortoises, and they live in the Department of Cognitive Biology at the University of Vienna. Researcher Julia Mueller-Paula and colleagues wanted to see whether the reptiles could learn to complete a spatial cognition test, and to do it they used a computer that could be operated with a touchscreen. Scientists discover what’s killing the bees and it’s worse than you thought.

Universal Basic Income (UBI) proposals are gaining in popularity across the political spectrum. The measures would see governments hand a set monthly income to every single citizen within a country, either in addition to existing benefits or in place of them (depending on the details of the particular UBI proposal). Left-wing fans favor UBI’s ability to eradicate absolute poverty, while right-wing libertarians are drawn to its simplicity and reduction in bureaucracy. In Silicon Valley, startup investment firm Y Combinator has plans to fund a basic income experiment in the US, while Finland announced last year it would conduct its own extensive experiment.

Coral Research. Why Coral Reefs? Our survival depends directly upon the health of our global ecosystems. Coral covers only about 0.2 percent of the Earth’s surface, yet coral reefs support 25 percent of all marine life with more density of life in reefs than any in other ocean habitat. How the threat to lions, leopards and wolves endangers us all.

They are the planet's most prolific killers – and also some of nature's most effective protectors. This is the stark conclusion of an international report that argues that lions, wolves, pumas, lynxes and other major carnivores play key roles in keeping ecosystems in balance. It also warns that the current depletion of numbers of major predators threatens to cause serious ecological problems across the globe. The paper, written by a group of 14 leading ecologists and biologists from the US, Europe and Australia and published in the journal Science, calls for the establishment of an international initiative to conserve large carnivores and help them to coexist with humans. Le déclin des grands carnivores bouleverse les écosystèmes.

Algonquin Park Ape on Bizzare Zoology. Research Papers - LionAid. News Article: Forest products critical to fight hunger - including insects. Farmer Ants Fertilize Their Gardens With Bacteria - Wired Science. Could Ants Hold the Key to Sustainable Agriculture? - Wired Science. Crop monocultures are bad. Edible insects. Grow Your Own Locust Kit Could Someday Help Feed African Refugees : The Salt. Hide captionLocust Farm, a prototype for an emergency food kit, would allow refugees to grow their own locust—a nutrient-rich source of protein.

Courtesy of Lea Bailly and Nicolas Pena Locust Farm, a prototype for an emergency food kit, would allow refugees to grow their own locust—a nutrient-rich source of protein. USING THE BLACK SOLDIER FLY, Hermetia illucens, AS A VALUE-ADDED TOOL FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SWINE MANURE. Sleep (non-human) Birds. Major histocompatibility complex and sexual selection. Discoveries - Yellowstone Ecosystem Needs Wolves and Willows, Elk and...Beavers?

Discoveries - By the Light of January's Wolf Moon. TreeHugger. Divers can talk to dolphins, perhaps aliens, with new device. Found: Whale thought extinct for 2 million years. North Korea claims proof of unicorns. Mini Microbe Portraits From the Micropolitan Museum - Wired Science. How Animals See The World. Wagga Wagga Covered In Spider Webs As Flooding Recedes. Taiwan zoo fined after birth of ligers. The 10 weirdest animal discoveries of 2012. Missing turtle survives in storage room for 30 years. World-first hybrid shark found off Australia. Dog chases stick, orca chases dog. Index of 6 unbelievable animals. Insecticides@mukamimi pts.

Pest control. Animals. ANIMALS. Animals. Animals. Animalia. Biology.