A Cypherpunk's Manifesto. By Eric Hughes Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age.
Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn't want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn't want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world. If two parties have some sort of dealings, then each has a memory of their interaction. Since we desire privacy, we must ensure that each party to a transaction have knowledge only of that which is directly necessary for that transaction. Therefore, privacy in an open society requires anonymous transaction systems. Privacy in an open society also requires cryptography.
We cannot expect governments, corporations, or other large, faceless organizations to grant us privacy out of their beneficence. This Map Shows What White Europeans Associate With Race – And It Makes For Uncomfortable Reading. This new map shows how easily white Europeans associate black faces with negative ideas.
Since 2002, hundreds of thousands of people around the world have logged onto a website run by Harvard University called Project Implicit and taken an “implicit association test” (IAT), a rapid-response task which measures how easily you can pair items from different categories. To create this new map, we used data from a version of the test which presents white or black faces and positive or negative words. The result shows how easily our minds automatically make the link between the categories – what psychologists call an “implicit racial attitude”. A European map of implicit racial bias. Author provided. Each country on the map is coloured according to the average score of test takers from that country. Like a similar map which had been made for US states, our map shows variation in the extent of racial bias – but all European countries are racially biased when comparing blacks versus whites.
Täytyykö liberalistin, sosialistin ja nationalistin olla nykyään libertaristeja? - Politiikasta. Tuomas Nevanlinna: Donald Trump tviittailee työväenliikkeen raunioilla. Filosofi Tuomas Nevanlinna kertoo esseessään, miksi Donald Trumpista tuli Yhdysvaltain presidentti.
Trump lumoaa, koska hän osoittaa esimerkillään, että kuka tahansa voi voittaa. Siihen ei tarvita koulutusta ja pinnistelyä, toisin kuin meille on uskoteltu. Justice: What's The Right Thing To Do? Episode 08: "WHATS A FAIR START?" In which John Rawls is a bad tipper. John Rawls is probably the most important political philosopher of the 20th century, especially for his best known work, A Theory of Justice.
When Does Equality Flourish? Late one evening in the summer of 2012, a group of researchers stood outside a bar in Lawrence, Kansas.
They worked for Laura Van Berkel, a graduate student in psychology at the University of Kansas who was interested in how drinking alcohol affects people’s thinking about equality. To that end, as people left the bar, the researchers asked them questions and measured their blood-alcohol levels. (For example, the drinkers were asked to rate, on a nine-point scale, the importance of “control or dominance over people or resources” as a “guiding principle in your life.”) The researchers’ hunch was that it takes mental effort to overcome hierarchical thinking—and that, as a result, drunk people, who are cognitively impaired, might have trouble thinking in egalitarian ways.
According to a 2009 review, conservatives tend to support hierarchy and authority more than liberals do. Internetix - Lukion ja peruskoulun kursseja. Yhdysvaltalaisen John Rawlsin ajattelu oikeudenmukaisesta yhteiskunnasta kuuluu sopimusteoreettiseen perinteeseen.
Want to build a just society? John Rawls said to start by ignoring your identity. New study finds that framing the argument differently increases support for environmental action by conservatives. When the appeal was perceived to be coming from the ingroup, conservatives were more likely to support pro-environment ideas. : science. Sociologist shows how to make effective political arguments. By Clifton B.
Parker In a study, Robb Willer found that the most effective arguments are ones in which the speaker finds a new way to connect a political position to the target audience’s moral values. (Image credit: L.A. Cicero) How blind auditions help orchestras to eliminate gender bias. Bias cannot be avoided, we just can't help ourselves.
Research shows that we apply different standards when we compare men and women. While explicit discrimination certainly exists, perhaps the more arduous task is to eliminate our implicit biases — the ones we don't even realise we have. After all, if you were making a decision about hiring someone or giving an employee a pay rise, wouldn't you like to be fair? Don't you think you should carry out your evaluation using only criteria that actually matter? A lot of us think we can make evaluations based on quality alone. Gender blind evaluations You could try to do your evaluation without knowing the sex of the person you're evaluating. An interview makes it impossible. Letters of recommendation that don't use first names may nonetheless reveal the sex of the person being written about. If we could avoid interviews and steer clear of using written profiles to review candidates, maybe we could stay gender neutral.
Stephen Hawking Says We Should Really Be Scared Of Capitalism, Not Robots. A Map Showing Every Single Cargo Ship In The World.