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Prepositions of time. The definite article. We use the, the definite article, before a singular or plural noun.

The definite article

We use the to show people that they know (or they will soon know) what we are talking about. Can you explain with examples? Of course. The definite article, the, can refer backwards in a conversation or text to something already mentioned. … my sister there hid a little parcel in my suitcase, so when I was unpacking the case I had a really cool surprise ... It can also refer forwards to something which is going to be mentioned or explained. Could you bring me the knife which you gave me? Does the always refer backwards or forwards? No, it can also refer to shared knowledge or general knowledge. But I'll try to connect from the hotel every evening. OK, I understand those rules, but I’ve seen lists of different uses of the. All right, I can give more specific examples, but they fit into the three areas I’ve given you.

And is the internet connection good? We use the with superlatives – again, we are talking about one thing. Personal pronouns and possessives. Oliver: Hey, Alfie.

Personal pronouns and possessives

How's things? Question words. We use the question words who (for people), what/which (for things), when (for time), where (for places), why (for reasons) and how (for more details).

Question words

What do I need to know about question words? I know you know the basics, but questions are quite tricky. Let’s just go over the main rules. We usually form questions by putting an auxiliary verb, or a modal verb, before the subject. Does it suit me? When the verb 'to be' is the main verb, we don’t use auxiliary verbs. Is Oliver there? We can add question words to get more or different information. Where did you go swimming? I see that questions sometimes finish with prepositions. Adverbs of frequency. Oliver: No, no!

Adverbs of frequency

I can never answer the yellow questions – they're about history or politics or something, I think. I'll have an orange question, please, Mr Anderson! The present continuous. We use the present continuous (am/is/are + -ing) to talk about temporary things which have begun but haven't finished.

The present continuous

They are often happening now, at this moment. Here are some examples of things happening now. I'm just uploading some photos to Facebook and I'm sending a message to Billie. We're all riding camels and the sun's shining. They're waiting for me to get off the phone! The past simple – irregular verbs. This, that, these, those. Sophie: Darling, hi, it’s me.

This, that, these, those

Daisy: Hi, Mum. Sophie: Listen, I’m in a bit of a hurry, but can you help me for a minute? Daisy: Ummm ... yeah. Sophie: Well, I’m doing a bit of Christmas shopping and I want your advice. The past simple – regular verbs. The past simple is the most common way of talking about past events or states which have finished.

The past simple – regular verbs

It is often used with past time references (e.g. yesterday, two years ago). Please explain past events or states! A past event could be one thing that happened in the past, or a repeated thing. I stopped at a zebra crossing. We carried on with the test. A state is a situation without an action happening. We stayed at my grandparents' house last summer. How do you form the past simple? Regular past simple forms are formed by adding -ed to the infinitive of the verb. start → startedkill → killedjump → jumped. To be – present and past. Countable and uncountable nouns. Some nouns in English are countable - we can use them in singular and plural forms.

Countable and uncountable nouns

Some are uncountable - they only have one form. We often use a/an with singular countable nouns and some with plurals. Have got. Daisy: I can’t wait to taste your Master Chef dishes!

Have got

What a crazy idea, though, for you two to have a cooking competition! Oliver: Well, it’s time to find out who really is the best chef! Alfie: There can only be one Master Chef.Oliver and Alfie: And this year’s Master Chef champion is...Daisy: You two are crazy! Come on, I can’t stay long. I’ve got swimming practice at 7.Oliver: OK, have you got the shopping list? The present simple. We use the present simple to talk about repeated actions or events, permanent states or things which are always true.

The present simple

To find out more about the present simple, read and listen to the conversation below. IRREGULAR VERBS TO LEARN IN 5E LEVEL.