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The Yorùbá religion comprises the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practices of the Yoruba people . Its homeland is in Southwestern Nigeria and the adjoining parts of Benin and Togo , a region that has come to be known as Yorubaland . Yorùbá religion is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder. It has influenced or given birth to thriving ways of life such as Lucumí , Umbanda and Candomblé . [ 1 ] Yoruba religious beliefs are part of itan, the total complex of songs, histories, stories and other cultural concepts which make up the Yorùbá society. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ edit ] Beliefs According to Kola Abimbola, the Yorùbá have evolved a robust philosophy. [ 1 ] In brief, it holds that all human beings possess what is known as "Àyànmô" [ 4 ] (destiny, fate) and are expected to eventually become one in spirit with Olódùmarè (Olòrún, the divine creator and source of all energy).
This pentacle , worn as a pendant , depicts a pentagram , or five-pointed star, used as a symbol of Wicca by many adherents. Wicca ( English pronunciation: / ˈ w ɪ k ə / ) is a modern pagan , witchcraft religion . It was developed in England during the first half of the 20th century and it was introduced to the public in 1952 by Gerald Gardner , a retired British civil servant. It draws upon a diverse set of ancient pagan and 20th century hermetic motifs for its theological structure and ritual practice. Wicca is a diverse religion with no central authority or figure defining it. It is divided into various lineages and denominations , referred to as "traditions", each with its own organisational structure and level of centralisation .
Shinto priest and priestess. Shinto ( 神道 , Shintō ? ) or Shintoism , also kami-no-michi , [ 1 ] is the indigenous spirituality of Japan and the people of Japan. It is a set of practices, to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present day Japan and its ancient past. [ 2 ] Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified "Shinto religion", but rather to disorganized folklore, history, and mythology. [ 3 ] Shinto today is a term that applies to public shrines suited to various purposes such as war memorials, harvest festivals , romance, and historical monuments, as well as various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual, dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian Periods. [ 3 ]
Hinduism is the predominant religion [ 1 ] [ 2 ] of the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism includes Shaivism , Vaishnavism and Śrauta among numerous other traditions. Among other practices and philosophies, Hinduism includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma , dharma , and societal norms. Hinduism is a conglomeration of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid common set of beliefs. [ 3 ] Hinduism is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder. [ 4 ] Among its direct roots is the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India and, as such, Hinduism is often called the " oldest living religion " [ 5 ] or the "oldest living major religion" in the world. [ 1 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ]
Catholicism is a broad term for describing specific traditions in the Christian churches in theology and doctrine , liturgy , ethics and spirituality.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία , tà biblía , "the books") is a canonical collection of texts considered sacred in Judaism or Christianity . Different religious groups include different books within their canons, in different orders, and sometimes divide or combine books, or incorporate additional material into canonical books. Christian Bibles range from the sixty-six books of the Protestant canon to the eighty-one books of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church canon. The Hebrew Bible , or Tanakh , contains twenty-four books divided into three parts; the five books of the Torah ("teaching" or "law"), the Nevi'im ("prophets"), and the Ketuvim ("writings"). The first part of Christian Bibles is the Old Testament , which contains, at minimum, the twenty-four books of the Hebrew Bible divided into thirty-nine books and ordered differently than the Hebrew Bible.
Christianity (from the Ancient Greek : Χριστιανός Christianos [ 1 ] and the Latin suffix -itas ) is a monotheistic [ 2 ] and Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings. Most adherents of the Christian faith, known as Christians , believe that Jesus is the Son of God , fully divine and fully human and the savior of humanity prophesied in the Old Testament . Consequentially, Christians commonly refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah .
Zen is a school of Mahayana Buddhism [ note 1 ] that developed in China during the 6th century as Chán . From China, Zen spread south to Vietnam , to Korea and east to Japan . The word Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪 ( dʑjen ) (Modern Mandarin : Chán ), which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyāna , which can be approximately translated as "absorption" or " meditative state ". Zen emphasizes the attainment of enlightenment and the personal expression of direct insight in the Buddhist teachings. As such, it de-emphasizes mere knowledge of sutras and doctrine and favors direct understanding through zazen and interaction with an accomplished teacher. The teachings of Zen include various sources of Mahāyāna thought, especially Yogācāra , the Tathāgatagarbha Sutras and Huayan .
Islam ( English pron.: / ˈ ɪ s l ɑː m / ; [ note 1 ] Arabic : الإسلام al-ʾislām IPA: [ælʔɪsˈlæːm] ( listen ) [ note 2 ] ) is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an , a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God ( Arabic : الله Allāh ) and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith ) of Muhammad , considered by them to be the last prophet of God . An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim .
Buddhism is a religion indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama , who is commonly known as the Buddha (meaning "the awakened one" in Sanskrit and Pāli ). The Buddha lived and taught in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. [ 1 ] He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end suffering ( dukkha ) through eliminating ignorance ( avidyā ) by way of understanding and seeing dependent origination ( pratītyasamutpāda ) and eliminating craving ( taṇhā ), and thus attain the cessation of all suffering, the sublime state of nirvāņa . [ 2 ] Two major branches of Buddhism are generally recognized: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle").