Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Phonological awareness is a broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language – parts such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes. Children who have phonological awareness are able to identify and make oral rhymes, can clap out the number of syllables in a word, and can recognize words with the same initial sounds like 'money' and 'mother.' Phonemic awareness refers to the specific ability to focus on and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Phonemes are the smallest units comprising spoken language. Phonemes combine to form syllables and words. Phonemic Awareness: An Important Early Step in Learning To Read Relation To The "Great Reading Wars" Phonological awareness and its role in beginning reading has the potential to confound supporters at both extremes of the whole language vs. phonics "debate" over reading instruction. Regardless of instructional technique, phonological awareness is an essential element for reading progress (Griffith and Olson, 1992). In another study, Griffith et al. (1992) found that children with high phonemic awareness outperformed those with low phonemic awareness on all literacy measures, whether they were taught using a whole language approach or traditional basal instruction. Whole language advocates need to admit that not all children develop this necessary ability simply through immersion in a print-rich environment, and that some children will need direct instruction in phonological awareness.
What is Phonological Awareness? - Clever Classroom Blog This post includes the following reading points. Hey-ho! I just love all things literacy and specifically working with words. I want to delve deeper into phonological development, because.. well.. I just love it! Don’t Lecture Me: Rethinking How College Students Learn Flickr:AllHails At the star-studded Harvard Initiative on Learning and Teaching (HILT) event earlier this month, where professors gathered to discuss innovative strategies for learning and teaching, Harvard’s professor Eric Mazur gave a talk on the benefits of practicing peer instruction in class, rather than the traditional lecture. The idea is getting traction. Here’s more about the practice.
Teaching children with additional educational needs It deals with the rationale behind teaching English to such children and provides teaching strategies for the institution and the classroom. English as a foreign language for children with additional educational needs Diverse needs A school policy Methodological approaches Supporting the learner Organising classes English as a foreign language for children with additional educational needs It is often thought that foreign language learning for a child with additional educational needs can waste valuable time that could be spent more profitably on teaching 'more relevant' skills and that it may confuse children who already have problems mastering their mother tongue. However, it is important to provide every opportunity to expand and enhance the range of learning experiences available for these children by including them in a wide range of activities throughout life. One of these activities is foreign language learning. References Vygotsky, L. 1978.
How Spelling Supports Reading And why it is more regular and predictable than you may think Much about spelling is puzzling. Our society expects that any educated person can spell, yet literate adults commonly characterize themselves as poor spellers and make spelling mistakes. Many children have trouble spelling, but we do not know how many, or in relation to what standard, because state accountability assessments seldom include a direct measure of spelling competence. Few state standards specify what, exactly, a student at each grade level should be able to spell, and most subsume spelling under broad topics such as written composition and language proficiency. State writing tests may not even score children on spelling accuracy, as they prefer to lump it in with other “mechanical” skills in the scoring rubrics.
Phonological Awareness: Instructional and Assessment Guidelines By: David J. Chard and Shirley V. Dickson This article defines phonological awareness and discusses historic and contemporary research findings regarding its relation to early reading. Common misconceptions about phonological awareness are addressed. Phonological awareness Phonological awareness (PDF, 54 KB) Before they can start to work with print, learners need to be able to hear the sounds in spoken words. The ability to hear and work with the sounds in words is known as phonological awareness. It is an awareness that operates at different levels and becomes (as the chart below shows) increasingly finegrained, involving awareness at the levels of whole word, syllable, onset–rime and, finally, phoneme. Note that letters appearing between slashes (//) should be read as sounds (phonemes), not letter names, although standard letters are used here rather than phonetic notation. Examples of the levels of phonological awareness