The ten traditional Niyamas
Niyama (Sanskrit: नियम niyama, "restraint", "observance", "rule", "restriction", (in abl.[clarification needed]) "certainly", "necessarily") generally denotes a duty or obligation adopted by a spiritual aspirant (or community of same), or prescribed by a guru or by scripture (notably, the niyamas of raja yoga). The semantic range above reflects the breadth of the term's application in practice, and in the Buddhist sense extends to the determinations of nature, as in the Buddhist niyama dhammas. In Pāli the spelling niyāma is often used. Hinduism Niyama
1Hri What does living virtuously mean to Hindus? It is following the natural and essential guidelines of dharma and the twenty ethical guidelines called 'yamas' and 'niyamas,' or 'restraints' and 'observances' - ancient scriptural injunctions for all aspects of human thought, attitude and behavior. These "do's" and "don'ts" are a common-sense code of conduct recorded in the Upanishads, the final section of the 6,000 to 8,000-year-old Vedas.
Dāna or Daana (Pāli, Sanskrit: दान dāna) is generosity or giving, a form of alms. In Hinduism and Buddhism, it is the practice of cultivating generosity. Ultimately, the practice culminates in one of the perfections (pāramitā): the perfection of giving - dāna-pāramitā. This can be characterized by unattached and unconditional generosity, giving and letting go. 3Dāna
4Āstika and nāstika
4Āstika Āstika (Sanskrit: आस्तिक āstika; "it exists") and Nāstika (नास्तिक, nāstika; "it doesn't exist") are technical terms in Hinduism used to classify philosophical schools and persons, according to whether they accept the authority of the Vedas as supreme revealed scriptures, or not, respectively. By this definition, Nyāyá, Vaiśeṣika, Sāṃkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedānta are classified as āstika schools; and some schools like Cārvāka, Ājīvika, Jainism and Buddhism are considered nāstika. The distinction is similar to the orthodox/heterodox distinction in the West. In non-technical usage, the term āstika is sometimes loosely translated as "theist", while nāstika is translated as "atheist". However, this interpretation is distinct from the use of the term in Hindu philosophy. Notably even among the āstika schools, Sāṃkhya is an atheistic philosophy. The different usages of these terms are explained by Chatterjee and Datta as follows:
The ten niyamas - the observances or practices that every ideal Hindu should follow - as interpreted by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami. The fifth observance, Worship of the Lord (Ishvarapujana) - the cultivation of devotion through daily worship and meditation. Cultivate devotion through daily worship and meditation. Set aside one room of your home as God’s shrine. Offer fruit, flowers or food daily. 5Ishvarapujana
6Siddhanta Sravana The ten niyamas - the observances or practices that every ideal Hindu should follow - as interpreted by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami. The sixth observance, Scriptural Listening (siddhanta sravana) - studying the teachings and listening to the wise of one's lineage. Eagerly hear the scriptures, study the teachings and listen to the wise of your lineage. Choose a guru, follow his path and don’t waste time exploring other ways. Read, study, and above all, listen to readings and dissertations by which wisdom flows from knower to seeker.
The ten niyamas - the observances or practices that every ideal Hindu should follow - as interpreted by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami. The seventh observance, Cognition (mati) - developing a spiritual will and intellect with the guru's guidance. Develop a spiritual will and intellect with your satguru’s guidance. Strive for knowledge of God, to awaken the light within. 7Mati
In the context of Hinduism and Hindu mythology, the term vrata (pronunciation: vrat or brat) denotes a religious practice to carry out certain obligations with a view to achieve divine blessing for fulfillment of one or several desires. Etymologically, vrata, a Sanskrit word (and also used in several Indo-European languages), means to vow or to promise. In Jainism, the vratas (elements of self-control) form the core of the practical Jainism. The Jain monks follow the five Mahavratas (great vratas), while the laity follow the five Anuvratas (minuscule vratas). 7Vrata
Origins Vyasa, the narrator of the Mahabharata, is traditionally considered the compiler of the Puranas. The date of the production of the written texts does not define the date of origin of the Puranas. On one hand, they existed in some oral form before being written while at the same time, they have been incrementally modified well into the 16th century. An early reference is found in the Chandogya Upanishad (7.1.2). (circa 500 BCE). The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad refers to purana as the "fifth Veda", itihāsapurāṇaṃ pañcamaṃ vedānāṃ, reflecting the early religious importance of these facts, which over time have been forgotten and presumably then in purely oral form. Puranas
Japa (Sanskrit: जप) is a spiritual discipline involving the meditative repetition of a mantra or name of a divine power. The mantra or name may be spoken softly, enough for the practitioner to hear it, or it may be spoken purely within the reciter's mind. Japa may be performed while sitting in a meditation posture, while performing other activities, or as part of formal worship in group settings. 9Japa
10Tapas Tapasya - Jain meditation in progress. Tapas (tapas, Sanskrit: तपस्) means deep meditation, effort to achieve self-realization, sometimes involving solitude, hermitism or asceticism; it is derived from the word root tap (Sanskrit: तप् or ताप) which depending on context means "heat" from fire or weather, or blaze, burn, shine, penance, pain, suffering, mortification.