"Soft" Sciences

Facebook Twitter

The First Successful Demonstration Of Brain-To-Brain Communication In Humans. Cockatoos Learn To Make Tools By Watching Their Friends. Baumol's cost disease. Baumol's cost disease (also known as the Baumol Effect) is a phenomenon described by William J. Baumol and William G. Bowen in the 1960s.[1] It involves a rise of salaries in jobs that have experienced no increase of labor productivity in response to rising salaries in other jobs which did experience such labor productivity growth. This seemingly goes against the theory in classical economics that wages are closely tied to labor productivity changes. The rise of wages in jobs without productivity gains is caused by the requirement to compete for employees with jobs that did experience gains and hence can naturally pay higher salaries, just as classical economics predicts.

For instance, if the retail sector pays its managers 19th century style salaries, the managers may decide to quit and get a job at an automobile factory where salaries are commensurate to high labor productivity. Effects, symptoms, and therapy[edit] Producers can react to wage inflation in a number of ways: Thomas Piketty's Capital in the 21st Century. To sum up: modern growth, which is based on the growth of productivity and the diffusion of knowledge, has made it possible to avoid the apocalypse predicted by Marx and to balance the process of capital accumulation.

Thomas Piketty's Capital in the 21st Century

But it has not altered the deep structures of capital -- or at any rate has not truly reduced the macroeconomic importance of capital relative to labor. I must now examine whether the same is true for inequality in the distribution of income and wealth. How much has the structure of inequality with respect to both labor and capital actually changed since the nineteenth century? I've been writing about Piketty's work for more than a year, as the first inklings of his French-language publications began to trickle into the Anglosphere.

Piketty has come in for a lot of praise for the clarity of his writing, and I think it's deserved. If there was one word I'd use to sum up the structure of Capital, it's "careful. " This is a crisis. A global tax on capital is a utopian idea. How simple ideas lead to scientific discoveries - Adam Savage. Piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/PikettyZucman2013Slides.pdf. Thomas Piketty - capitalisback. Capital is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries 1700-2010 Thomas Piketty & Gabriel Zucman List of Files - July 2013 (updated, December 2013) This research is available in two formats: long version (full-length working paper version, including data appendices), or short version (article version published in QJE, 2014).

Thomas Piketty - capitalisback

Piketty, T., and G. Zucman, "Capital is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries, 1700-2010", Paris School of Economics, 2013 [working paper (pdf) (71p.)] Piketty, T., and G. All charts and tables can also be accessed through an interactive charbook and and interactive databook. This research is supported by a new macro-historical database on income and wealth that can be downloaded in the zip file PikettyZucman2013Data.zip. . - Figures.xls and Tables.xls = excel files containing all figures and tables included in the main paper - AppendixFigures.xls and AppendixTables.xls = excel files containing all appendix figures and tables.

Piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/capital21c/en/Piketty2014TechnicalAppendixResponsetoFT.pdf. Have we been dramatically underestimating elephant intelligence? World Economic Outlook (WEO): Hopes, Realities, and Risks, April 2013 - text.pdf. Yerkes & Dodson (1908) Classics in the History of Psychology An internet resource developed by Christopher D.

Yerkes & Dodson (1908)

Green York University, Toronto, Ontario (Return to Classics index) Robert M. Yerkes and John D. First published in Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459-482. In connection with a study of various aspects of the modifiability of behavior in the dancing mouse a need for definite knowledge concerning the relation of strength of stimulus to rate of learning arose. The habit whose formation we attempted to study quantitatively, with respect to the strength of the stimulus which favored its formation, may be described as the white-black discrimination habit. As a detailed account of the important features of the white-black visual discrimination habit in the dancer has already been published,[1] a brief description of our method of experimentation [p. 460] will suffice for the purposes of this paper.

This table shows also the general classification of our experiments. [p. 473] [p. 474] Is Wine Bullshit? A Lafite Rothschild Bordeaux sells for a minimum of around $500 a bottle, while humble brands like Charles Shaw and Franzia sell for as little as $2.

Is Wine Bullshit?

But as far as “wine economists” are concerned, the level of correlation between the price of a bottle of wine and its quality is low or nonexistent. In a number of damning studies, they suggest that wine is not just poorly priced, but that the different tastes we describe in wine may all be in our heads. A 2008 paper in The Journal of Wine Economics, for example, found that when consumers are unaware of a wine’s price, they “on average enjoy more expensive wines slightly less [than cheap ones].” Experts do not fare much better. The study could not conclude that experts preferred more expensive wine: “In sum, we find a non-negative relationship between price and overall rating for experts. In another experiment, critics tasted one red wine and one white wine.

Year after year, Hodgson replicated his results. Not all wine is the same. Cognitive bias. A cognitive bias is a pattern of deviation in judgment, whereby inferences about other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion.[1] Individuals create their own “subjective social reality” from their perception of the input.[2] An individual’s construction of social reality, not the objective input, may dictate their behaviour in the social world.[3] Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.[4][5][6] Some cognitive biases are presumably adaptive.

Cognitive bias

A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics. Cognitive biases are important to study because “systematic errors” highlight the “psychological processes that underlie perception and judgement” (Tversky & Kahneman,1999, p. 582). Overview[edit] Types[edit] Johari window. Johari window Johari window as Venn diagram depicting intersection between a+) "Known to self" and a-) "Not known to self" on one hand, and on the other hand, b+) "Known to others" and b-) "Not known to others", with c showing the intersection containing four windows (or rooms) The Johari window is a technique created by Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham in 1955[1] in the United States, used to help people better understand their relationship with self and others.

Johari window

It is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate settings as a heuristic exercise. When performing the exercise, subjects are given a list of 56 adjectives and pick five or six that they feel describe their own personality. Peers of the subject are then given the same list, and each pick five or six adjectives that describe the subject. Charles Handy calls this concept the Johari House with four rooms. Blind Spot: Adjectives that are not selected by subjects but only by their peers are placed into the Blind Spot quadrant. World War II Did Not End the Great Depression - Art Carden. [This article originally appeared in the June 2009 issue of the Freeman as "The Great Depression and World War II.

World War II Did Not End the Great Depression - Art Carden

" An MP3 audio file of this article, narrated by Keith Hocker, is available for download.] The current economic climate has a lot of people talking about the Great Depression. In particular, it has been said by people of divergent political views (George Will and Paul Krugman, for example) that World War II ended the decade-long economic nightmare. Examining this claim is worthwhile because it has implications for whether government intervention generally — and in connection with war specifically — are good for the economy. Further, this examination will help us understand how policy changes alter incentives. In Depression, War, and Cold War, Robert Higgs divides the Great Depression into three phases. How do we know that regime uncertainty was responsible for the lack of recovery?

The Great Depression did more than chill the investment climate. What about World War II? How to Read Body Language to Reveal the Underlying Truth in Almost Any Situation. Kinja is in read-only mode.

How to Read Body Language to Reveal the Underlying Truth in Almost Any Situation

We are working to restore service. It's a holistic thing. If you see someone displaying several of these they might be lying. Just leaning away might be about comfort, but leaning away, looking away and giving too many details might indicate dishonesty. Maybe you find crossing your arms comfortable because it's a protective stance. Flagged Yeah I guess it's easier to claim we all fit into specific boxes and that if someone has there arms crossed they are protecting themselves from something or other. Holistic as in a whole picture. This has already been discredited in the past so maybe you shouldn't fall for everything you read and be a little skeptical of this type of profiling.

Hilarious Experiment On Monkeys. New study says American families are overwhelmed by clutter, rarely eat together, and are generally stressed out about it all. Tell me about it. That sums up Boston parents’ reaction to new research by UCLA-affiliated social scientists concluding that American families are overwhelmed by clutter, too busy to go in their own backyards, rarely eat dinner together even though they claim family meals as a goal, and can’t park their cars in the garage because they’re crammed with non-vehicular stuff. The team of anthropologists and archeologists spent four years studying 32 middle-class Los Angeles families in their natural habitat — their toy-littered homes — and came to conclusions so grim that the lead researcher used the word “disheartening” to describe the situation we have gotten ourselves into.

At first glance, the just-published, 171-page “Life at Home in the Twenty-First Century” looks like a coffee table book. But it contains very real-life photos of pantries, offices, and backyards, and details a generally Zen-free existence. Architectural Digest or Real Simple this is not. The goal, said Jeanne E. Euro 2012: les tirs au but ne sont pas une loterie.

Les data en forme. Jer Thorp: Make data more human. Who Lived in Your House in 1940? Here’s a splendid diversion if you’re a data nerd, a history buff, or even just like good detective work: Tell the story of the family that lived in your house in 1940.

Who Lived in Your House in 1940?

A bit more background. If you are in the United States, you probably remember participating in the Decennial Census in 2010. These forms are kept confidential for 72 years—roughly an average American’s life span. But this same rule means that today (actually, a couple of days ago), the 1940 Census results became public information. The good folks at the National Archives have scanned all of these census forms, and put them all online. My friend Sue Dynarski alerted me to all this, and issued the 1940 Census Challenge. It took me a while, but I found my house. The three families provide an interesting snapshot of Depression-era Philadelphia. First, the Chisom’s, who had moved to Philadelphia from Blackville, South Carolina. Second, were Paul and Lillian Evans (age 33 and 32), who were also from Blackville.

Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection - UT Library Online. The Project Gutenberg eBook of Buccaneers and Pirates of Our Coasts, by Frank Richard Stockton.


The God issue: New science of religion. (Image: Richard Wilkinson) Can't live with him, can't live without him.

The God issue: New science of religion

In a special series of articles we lay out a new vision that resets the terms of the debate In our enlightened world, god is still everywhere. In the UK, arguments rage over "militant atheism" and the place of religion in public life. In the US, religion is again taking centre stage in the presidential election. Perhaps that is because we have been looking at god the wrong way. Like it or not, religious belief is ingrained into human nature. Viewing religion this way opens up new territory in the battle between science and religion, not least that religion is much more likely to persist than science.

Of course, the truth or otherwise of religion is not a closed book to science: the existence of a deity can be treated as a scientific hypothesis. Meanwhile, society is gradually learning to live without religion by replicating its success at binding people together. 10 biggest puzzles of human evolution. Cookies on the New Scientist website close Our website uses cookies, which are small text files that are widely used in order to make websites work more effectively. To continue using our website and consent to the use of cookies, click away from this box or click 'Close' Find out about our cookies and how to change them Log in Your login is case sensitive I have forgotten my password close My New Scientist Look for Science Jobs 10 biggest puzzles of human evolution (Image: Tim Watkins) We are the ape that stood on two feet, lost its fur and crossed the globe – but why?

Why aren't we more like chimps? 01:33 22 March 2012 Nobody would mistake a human for a chimpanzee, yet we share more DNA than mice and rats. Why did we become bipedal? Darwin thought we stood up to handle tools, but new theories suggest it had more to do with staying cool and running farRead more Why was technological development so slow? 01:00 23 March 2012 When did language evolve? Why are our brains so big? Why did we lose our fur?


Philosophy. Droit. Economie. Appinions. Maslow Self Actualization - unlearn. "Self Actualization is the intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately, of what the organism is. " Abraham Maslow Maslow studied healthy people, most psychologists study sick people. The characteristics listed here are the results of 20 years of study of people who had the "full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialities, etc.. " Self-actualization implies the attainment of the basic needs of physiological, safety/security, love/belongingness, and self-esteem. Maslow's Basic Principles: The normal personality is characterized by unity, integration, consistency, and coherence.

Realistic Realistically oriented, SA persons have a more efficient perception of reality, they have comfortable relations with it. Acceptance Accept themselves, others and the natural world the way they are. Spontaneity, Simplicity, Naturalness Spontaneous in their inner life, thoughts and impulses, they are unhampered by convention. Problem Centering Peak experiences Creativity. Paul Ekman. Paul Ekman. F.A.C.E. Training. With 50 years of research and innovative study - Dr. Paul Ekman has developed his F.A.C.E Training - based on reading microexpressions: Using the Ekman Method built on over 40 years of published research on micro expressions and deception, The Paul Ekman Group LLC is the industry leader in METT/SETT products. Ekman designed and endorsed training will improve your ability to "see" and "relate" to the world around us. See why Government agencies, Fortune 500 companies, educational and medical professionals are using Dr.

Ekman's training to enhance their ability to better 'read" people and detect potential lies. This training has been scientifically proven and field tested and is now the basis of a new television show on FOX tv: LIE TO ME, of which Dr. Get Me Started. Détection des mensonges. Résultats Google Recherche d'images correspondant à. Michael Sandel. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of choice. Ancestry5_large.jpg (3000×1536)


Des images dans la tête… The Easter Island “Heads” Have Bodies.