Validity & Design. Qualitative Research. Literature Review & Evaluation. Reading Research. Lit/Info Search. Scientific Method. James Randi: Scientists Fooled by a Match Box Trick. The Two Types of Knowledge: The Max Plank/Chauffeur Test. Charlie Munger, the billionaire business partner of Warren Buffett, frequently tells the story below to illustrate how to distinguish real knowledge from pretend knowledge.
At the 2007 Commencement to the USC Law School, Munger explained it this way: I frequently tell the apocryphal story about how Max Planck, after he won the Nobel Prize, went around Germany giving the same standard lecture on the new quantum mechanics.Over time, his chauffeur memorized the lecture and said, “Would you mind, Professor Planck, because it's so boring to stay in our routine, if I gave the lecture in Munich and you just sat in front wearing my chauffeur's hat?” Planck said, “Why not?” And the chauffeur got up and gave this long lecture on quantum mechanics.
After which a physics professor stood up and asked a perfectly ghastly question. Scientific Method Flowchart. Paper reading. Writing Quality.
PseudoScience. Example Research Topics. Experiments, Ethics & Society. Research Videos. HUB-441. Indices & Scales. Public Policy. Rationing in the United Kingdom - Wikipedia. Civilian rationing: A shopkeeper cancels the coupons in a British housewife's ration book in 1943 Rationing was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war. At the start of the Second World War in 1939, the United Kingdom imported 20 million long tons (20 Mt) of food per year, including about 70% of its cheese and sugar, nearly 80% of fruits and about 70% of cereals and fats.
The U.K. also imported more than 50% of its meat and relied heavily on imported feed to support its domestic meat production. The civilian population of the country was about 50 million. It was one of the principal strategies of the Germans to attack shipping bound for Britain, restricting British industry and potentially starving the nation into submission. First World War A First World War government leaflet detailing the consequences of breaking the rationing laws. The general strike Second World War Public catering Health effects. How Aristotle Created the Computer - The Atlantic.
The history of computers is often told as a history of objects, from the abacus to the Babbage engine up through the code-breaking machines of World War II.
In fact, it is better understood as a history of ideas, mainly ideas that emerged from mathematical logic, an obscure and cult-like discipline that first developed in the 19th century. Mathematical logic was pioneered by philosopher-mathematicians, most notably George Boole and Gottlob Frege, who were themselves inspired by Leibniz’s dream of a universal “concept language,” and the ancient logical system of Aristotle. Mathematical logic was initially considered a hopelessly abstract subject with no conceivable applications. As one computer scientist commented: “If, in 1901, a talented and sympathetic outsider had been called upon to survey the sciences and name the branch which would be least fruitful in [the] century ahead, his choice might well have settled upon mathematical logic.”
All men are mortal. All men are mortal. x = x * y. Furud: Mu-ming Poo's Letter to his students in 2002. Written on 오전 11:22 by furud.
The Increasing Problem With the Misinformed (by @baekdal) #analysis. ‘We experiment on human beings!’ OkCupid unapologetic about experiments on users — RT America. ‘I did it for your own good’ is not what you want to hear when the dating site you use sets you up on a bad date.
On purpose. ‘Everybody does it’ is similarly disconcerting. But that’s exactly what OkCupid is saying about experiments involving its users. SG AMCIS03. Chapter 7: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding - Public Knowledge About S&T. Importance of Scientific Literacy Understanding Scientific Terms and Concepts Understanding the Scientific Process Technological Literacy Belief in Pseudoscience Surveys conducted in the United States and Europe reveal that many citizens do not have a firm grasp of basic scientific facts and concepts, nor do they have an understanding of the scientific process.
In addition, belief in pseudoscience (an indicator of scientific illiteracy) seems to be widespread among Americans and Europeans. Studies also suggest that not many Americans are technologically literate. Importance of Scientific Literacy Scientific literacy in the United States (and in other countries) is fairly low.
Understanding Science: An overview. To understand what science is, just look around you.
Supervised learning: predicting an output variable from high-dimensional observations — scikit-learn 0.18.1 documentation. 10. Hypothesis Testing. Noted Dutch Psychologist, Stapel, Accused of Research Fraud. A well-known psychologist in the Netherlands whose work has been published widely in professional journals falsified data and made up entire experiments, an investigating committee has found.
Landmark study suggests most psychology studies don't yield reproducible results. Science is a process, not a product -- often a long one.
And key to the process of organizing and creating knowledge is replication, or reproducing even the most credible-seeming results to help confirm their validity or to expose flaws in the work. Too often, however, for a variety of reasons and competing interests -- why test someone else’s results when journals favor original research, for example? -- replication becomes the missing step in the scientific process. That leaves the door open to research misconduct or fraud or, worse and much more common, promising data gone untested. While the replication problem is widely acknowledged, it is largely unexplored.
Many Psychology Findings Not as Strong as Claimed, Study Says. The project began in 2011, when a University of Virginia psychologist decided to find out whether suspect science was a widespread problem.
He and his team recruited more than 250 researchers, identified the 100 studies published in 2008, and rigorously redid the experiments in close collaboration with the original authors. The new analysis, called the Reproducibility Project, found no evidence of fraud or that any original study was definitively false. Rather, it concluded that the evidence for most published findings was not nearly as strong as originally claimed. Dr. John Ioannidis, a director of Stanford University’s Meta-Research Innovation Center, who once estimated that about half of published results across medicine were inflated or wrong, noted the proportion in psychology was even larger than he had thought.
Summarizing. How to Summarize a Research Article. Howtocritiqueajournalarticle. Open Logic Project. We regularly compile the files in the repository into PDFs. If you’d just like to see what is there, you can find them at our builds site. There are PDFs of every section, chapter, and part, but the most interesting files are: Sample Logic Text, a textbook selected and remixed from the mature material in the Open Logic repository.Open Logic Text, Complete Clean Version, one big PDF of all the material is available, including experimental parts.Open Logic Text, Debug Version, with additional markup to identify source files and OLT-specific commands.
The complete source code of the Open Logic Text is hosted on GitHub. GitHub is a collaboration portal and Git server. To download the source code, you should go to the GitHub repository page. Demonhauntedworld. Howtoresearch.pdf. In Experiments We Trust: From Intuit to Harrah’s Casinos. Regular readers of MIT Sloan Management Review will recognize the name Gary Loveman. Loveman earned a Ph.D. in economics at MIT and went on to become CEO, president, and chairman of Caesars Entertainment, owner of Harrah's casinos and other resorts worldwide. In MIT circles, Loveman is famous for saying that while theft is a firing offense at Caesars, so too is running an experiment without a control group. (See our conversation from last April with MIT Sloan's Erik Brynjolfsson, “The 4 Ways IT is Driving Innovation.”) In a new interview with MIT Sloan’s Michael Schrage for Technology Review, Loveman talks about the company’s continued focuses on data analysis and small-scale testing that can scale into company-wide initiatives.
How to Write a Great Research Paper. 2 April 2009 - Robot scientist becomes first machine to discover new scientific knowledge. Related links External links Share this page: Sets a cookie 2 April 2009 Scientists funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) have created a Robot Scientist which the researchers believe is the first machine to have independently discovered new scientific knowledge.