10. How do existing research studies explain how children learn to read and how teachers might teach them?
These studies reveal no consensus of opinion. Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science. By Louisa C.
Moats The most fundamental responsibility of schools is teaching students to read. Because reading affects all other academic achievement and is associated with social, emotional, economic, and physical health, it has been the most researched aspect of human cognition. By the year 2000, after decades of multidisciplinary research, the scientific community had achieved broad consensus regarding these questions: How do children learn to read?
What causes reading difficulties? Scientists use increasingly sophisticated technology that can picture the brain’s activation patterns or measure split-second reactions to speech or print. EEF Blog: Improving reading comprehension through strategy instruction. In this blog, Robbie Coleman – a secondary school English teacher and a Senior Associate at the EEF – looks at the debates and recent developments about explicitly teaching thinking strategies in lessons.
In my previous blog-post, I declared myself a big fan of Barak Rosenshine. Rosenshine’s writing is sharp and illuminates some interesting ideas around the murky educational debates between teaching skills versus knowledge, and the relative merits of teacher- and student-led activities. Rosenshine’s support for explicit teacher-led skills instruction shows why a binary split between “traditional” and “progressive” teaching is unhelpful.
Rosenshine proposed that a central aim of education is to help novices become experts – and a fundamental characteristic of an expert is the way they use skills (or ‘cognitive strategies’) to deal with challenging or unstructured tasks. KS2 Literacy Guidance Poster. Improving Literacy in Key Stage Two. Beyond the ‘Reading Wars’: How the science of reading can improve literacy. Ending the Reading Wars. ‘Just reading’: the impact of a faster pace of reading narratives on the comprehension of poorer adolescent readers in English classrooms - Westbrook - 2019 - Literacy. Introduction Skilled readers read in an engaged, sustained manner, connecting plot, characters and themes in the satisfying construction of the whole text (Kintsch, 1988).
In contrast, adolescent readers in secondary schools (11–16 years) in England typically experience texts as fragments, a few pages read each lesson stretched over many weeks, the reading interrupted by oral and written literary analysis where teachers assume that students have comprehended what they read (Westbrook, 2013). Across Europe, 20% of 15‐year‐olds have significant difficulties in ‘reading literacy’, a disproportionate number of whom come from disadvantaged groups (EACEA, 2011). In England, 31% of 16‐year‐olds in 2015 failed to achieve A–C* pass grades in their English General Certificate of Secondary Education examination, yet at 11 years, in primary school, only 11% of the same cohort failed to attain the expected Level 4 in the Standard Assessment Tests.
Literature review Research design Findings Discussion. About — Reading Journey. Supporting independent reading and creating purposeful book areas The Reading Journey is designed to: support the teaching of independent readinghelp teachers maintain class book corners and reading areaskeep book corners stocked with outstanding up-to-date booksensure children encounter a wide range of quality literature and illustrationprovide a loose, but supportive, structure that will enable teachers to develop a good working knowledge of the books in their classroomfacilitate high quality child-to-child and child-to-adult interactions about books and reading.
VIPERS. ‘Mansions in the head’: images, words, and the memories they conjure. ‘Seeing comes before words……It is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding land; we explain that world with words, but words can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it.’
‘Images were first made to conjure up the appearance of something that was absent’.Ways of SeeingJohn Berger‘Memory is made of the imaginary; the imaginary made of memory.’What We See When We ReadPeter Mendelsund This image is taken from the poster for the 1992 film The Long Day Closes directed by Terence Davies. It’s an autobiographical film, like his earlier Distant Voices , Still Lives (1988), and the three shorter works that made up the Terence Davies Trilogy (1983). It’s film as collage, with no material rough edges. It gathers together, and fills out, a series of the director’s memories, recreates and frames them with an exacting eye, and moves between them, deliberately unhurried.
You get a sense of the approach in this clip here. Why am I writing about this film? Literacy educator, Literacy Professor, Literacy and Reading Blog, Reading Instruction. Excellence in research: inspiring creative pedagogies. Getting meta on early reading skills: reflections on the HfL Early Reading Project Pilot (ERPP) Teachers as readers. Skim reading is the new normal. The effect on society is profound. Look around on your next plane trip.
The iPad is the new pacifier for babies and toddlers. Younger school-aged children read stories on smartphones; older boys don’t read at all, but hunch over video games. Parents and other passengers read on Kindles or skim a flotilla of email and news feeds. Unbeknownst to most of us, an invisible, game-changing transformation links everyone in this picture: the neuronal circuit that underlies the brain’s ability to read is subtly, rapidly changing - a change with implications for everyone from the pre-reading toddler to the expert adult.
As work in neurosciences indicates, the acquisition of literacy necessitated a new circuit in our species’ brain more than 6,000 years ago. This is not a simple, binary issue of print vs digital reading and technological innovation. We know from research that the reading circuit is not given to human beings through a genetic blueprint like vision or language; it needs an environment to develop. EEF_Interim_Evidence_Brief_-_Reading_at_the_Transition.pdf.