Portal:Systems science. Edit The Systems science Portal Systems are sets of entities, physical or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component and they all serve a common objective.
The scientific research field which is engaged in the interdisciplinary study of universal system-based properties of the world is general system theory, systems science and recently systemics. Comparison of agent-based modeling software. In the last few years, the agent-based modeling (ABM) community has developed several practical agent based modeling toolkits that enable individuals to develop agent-based applications.
More and more such toolkits are coming into existence, and each toolkit has a variety of characteristics. Several individuals have made attempts to compare toolkits to each other (see references). Below is a chart intended to capture many of the features that are important to ABM toolkit users. Comparison of ABM Software References Nikolai, C.; G. External links What are Complex Adaptive Systems? Cause and Effect For many years scientists saw the universe as a linear place.
One where simple rules of cause and effect apply. They viewed the universe as big machine and thought that if they took the machine apart and understood the parts, then they would understand the whole. They also thought that the universe's components could be viewed as machines, believing that if we worked on the parts of these machines and made each part work better, then the whole would work better. Scientists believed the universe and everything in it could be predicted and controlled. However hard they tried to find the missing components to complete the picture they failed. Complexity Theory. Evolutionary algorithm. Evolutionary algorithms often perform well approximating solutions to all types of problems because they ideally do not make any assumption about the underlying fitness landscape; this generality is shown by successes in fields as diverse as engineering, art, biology, economics, marketing, genetics, operations research, robotics, social sciences, physics, politics and chemistry.
In most real applications of EAs, computational complexity is a prohibiting factor. In fact, this computational complexity is due to fitness function evaluation. Fitness approximation is one of the solutions to overcome this difficulty. However, seemingly simple EA can solve often complex problems; therefore, there may be no direct link between algorithm complexity and problem complexity. Cybernetics. Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems, their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
Cybernetics is relevant to the study of systems, such as mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems. Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop; that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in that system in some manner (feedback) that triggers a system change, originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship. Some say this is necessary to a cybernetic perspective. System dynamics, a related field, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of simulation models (especially business systems) by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine Definitions W.
General. List of chaotic maps. Invisible hand. In economics, the invisible hand is a metaphor used by Adam Smith to describe unintended social benefits resulting from individual actions.
The phrase is employed by Smith with respect to income distribution (1759) and production (1776). The exact phrase is used just three times in Smith's writings, but has come to capture his notion that individuals' efforts to pursue their own interest may frequently benefit society more than if their actions were directly intending to benefit society. Smith may have come up with the two meanings of the phrase from Richard Cantillon who developed both economic applications in his model of the isolated estate. He first introduced the concept in The Theory of Moral Sentiments, written in 1759, invoking it in reference to income distribution. Adam Smith The Theory of Moral Sentiments The Wealth of Nations
Spontaneous order. Spontaneous orders are to be distinguished from organizations.
Spontaneous orders are distinguished by being scale-free networks, while organizations are hierarchical networks. Further, organizations can be and often are a part of spontaneous social orders, but the reverse is not true. Further, while organizations are created and controlled by humans, spontaneous orders are created, controlled, and controllable by no one.  In economy and the social studies, spontaneous order is defined as "the result of human actions, not of human design. " Spontaneous order is also used as a synonym for any emergent behavior of which self-interested spontaneous order is just an instance.
Synergy. Synergy is the interaction of multiple elements in a system to produce an effect different from or greater than the sum of their individual effects.
The term synergy comes from the Greek word synergia συνέργεια from synergos, συνεργός, meaning "working together". Strong emergence. Snowflakes forming complex symmetrical patterns is an example of emergence in a physical system.
Emergence. Journal of Nonlinear Science.