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Computational Thinking

Facebook Twitter 101 uses of a quadratic equation. March 2004 It isn't often that a mathematical equation makes the national press, far less popular radio, or most astonishingly of all, is the subject of a debate in the UK parliament. However, in 2003 the good old quadratic equation, which we all learned about in school, was all of those things. Where we begin It all started at a meeting of the National Union of Teachers. The quadratic equation was held aloft to the nation as an example of the cruel torture inflicted by mathematicians on poor unsuspecting school children. Intrigued by this accusation, the quadratic equation accepted a starring role on prime time radio where it was questioned by a formidable interviewer more used to taking on the Prime Minister.

Where would it all end? Maybe so, but it's not really the quadratic equation's fault. The Babylonians Babylonian cuneiform tablets recording the 9 times tables It all started around 3000 BC with the Babylonians. Let's suppose that you are a Babylonian farmer. And to give formula": then. Everyday Examples of Situations to Apply Quadratic Equations. Binary Game. Skip to Content | Skip to Footer Cisco Binary Game The Cisco Binary Game is the best way to learn and practice the binary number system.

It is great for classes, students and teachers in science, math, digital electronics, computers, programming, logic and networking. It is also a LOT of fun to play for anyone who likes to play fast-paced arcade games. Binary, Decimal and Hexadecimal Numbers. Decimals To understand Binary and Hexadecimal numbers, it is best to know how Decimal Numbers work. Every digit in a decimal number has a "position", and the decimal point helps us to know which position is which. The position just to the left of the point is the "Units" position. Every position further to the left is 10 times bigger, and every position further to the right is 10 times smaller: Now, this is just a way of writing down a value. The Decimal Number System is also called "Base 10". And there are 10 symbols (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9), but notice something interesting: there is no symbol for "ten". "10" is actually two symbols put together, a "1" and a "0": In decimal you count "0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,...

" but then you run out of symbols! So you add 1 on the left and then start again at 0: 10,11,12, ... Counting with Different Number Systems But you don't have to use 10 as a "Base". Example: In binary you count "0,1,... " but then you run out of symbols! So the general rule is: Like this: Computational Thinking Toolkit. Exploring Computational Thinking. Math Games and Puzzles. Parabola. Try kicking the ball: © 2016 v0.88 Definition A parabola is a curve where any point is at an equal distance from: a fixed point (the focus ), and a fixed straight line (the directrix ) Get a piece of paper, draw a straight line on it, then make a big dot for the focus (not on the line!).

Now play around with some measurements until you have another dot that is exactly the same distance from the focus and the straight line. Keep going until you have lots of little dots, then join the little dots and you will have a parabola! Names Here are the important names: the directrix and focus (explained above) the axis of symmetry (goes through the focus, at right angles to the directrix) the vertex (where the parabola makes its sharpest turn) is halfway between the focus and directrix. Reflector And a parabola has this amazing property: Any ray parallel to the axis of symmetry gets reflected off the surface straight to the focus. And that explains why that dot is called the focus ... Equations. Drawing. This tutorial is for Processing version 1.1+. If you see any errors or have comments, please let us know. This tutorial is from the book, Learning Processing, by Daniel Shiffman, published by Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Copyright 2008 Elsevier Inc.

All rights reserved. Coordinate Space Before we begin programming with Processing, we must first channel our eighth grade selves, pull out a piece of graph paper, and draw a line. The above figure shows a line between point A (1,0) and point B (4,5). Line(1,0,4,5); Even without having studied the syntax of writing code, the above statement should make a fair amount of sense. The key here is to realize that the computer screen is nothing more than a fancier piece of graph paper. Nevertheless, there is a catch here. Simple Shapes The vast majority of the programming examples you'll see with Processing are visual in nature. A point() is the easiest of the shapes and a good place to start.

Starter kit of components. Also see: Tools for electronics | Making a workbench If you are new to electronics and would like to try adapting published projects, or designing and building your own circuits, you need to have a small stock of components available. However, there is a very wide range of components and it can be difficult to know which ones you really need! I hope the list below will help you choose a sensible selection which is within your budget. Remember that circuits built on breadboard can be dismantled after use and the components re-used. Kits of assorted components may be available and this is a great way to start if you can afford the initial cost. Essential components These are the components used in most projects. Resistors 0.25W carbon film resistors are the cheapest type.

To 1M such as the E6 or E12 series, but that is a large number of resistors! . Resistors are for use with LEDs, even if a project specifies a slightly different value. and 220k in series is 320k which is close enough to 330k. Logic Gates Part 1 (With Simulator!) Fundamentals of Data Representation: Binary fractions. So far we have only looked at whole numbers (integers), we need to understand how computer represent fractions. You should have learned at Primary School how a decimal fraction works: As you can see, the column headings have been extended to and. . , and so on. Notice that for the same number of bits after the point, the binary fraction provides less accuracy. So you might ask how a computer does complicated mathematics if it struggle so hard with fractions. Increase the number of bits to increase range of numberincrease number of bits after the decimal point to increase accuracy In practice they will also use clever techniques such as floating point numbers that you will meet in A2.

Google Sites and Digital Portfolios | Ms. Computer Teacher - Ms. Computer Teacher. An Introduction To Digital Electronics: The Intro - PyroEDU. Basic Logic Gates. The 'Exclusive-NOR' gate circuit does the opposite to the EOR gate. It will give a low output if either, but not both, of its two inputs are high. The symbol is an EXOR gate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion.

The NAND and NOR gates are called universal functions since with either one the AND and OR functions and NOT can be generated. Note: A function in sum of products form can be implemented using NAND gates by replacing all AND and OR gates by NAND gates. Table 2 is a summary truth table of the input/output combinations for the NOT gate together with all possible input/output combinations for the other gate functions. Example A NAND gate can be used as a NOT gate using either of the following wiring configurations. Problem Draw the circuit diagrams like the ones in the example above to show how a NOR gate can be made into a NOT gate.

Multiple Input Gates Tutorials with LabVIEW simulations Gates and Functions Quiz. Logic Puzzles. The Ultimate Puzzle Site - Logical Puzzles. A rather silly car thief stole, without knowing it, the car of the chief of police. The police immediately started an investigation and based on witness depositions, four suspects were arrested that were seen near the car at the time of the crime. Because the chief of police took the case very seriously, he decided to examine the suspects personally and use the new lie detector of the police station. Each suspect gave three statements during the examinations, which are listed below: Suspect A: "In high school, I was in the same class as suspect C. "" Suspect B: "Suspect C is the guilty one. "" Suspect C: "I never met suspect A until today. "" Suspect D: "Suspect C is innocent. "" With so many contradicting statements, the chief of police lost track.

Introduction to algebra | Algebra. How to fit a quadratic Equation using Excel. 101 uses of a quadratic equation. Quadratic Equations. An example of a Quadratic Equation: The name Quadratic comes from "quad" meaning square, because the variable gets squared (like x2). It is also called an "Equation of Degree 2" (because of the "2" on the x) The Standard Form of a Quadratic Equation looks like this: Here are some more examples: Hidden Quadratic Equations! So the "Standard Form" of a Quadratic Equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0 But sometimes a quadratic equation doesn't look like that!

How To Solve It? The "solutions" to the Quadratic Equation are where it is equal to zero. They are also called "roots", or sometimes "zeros" There are 3 ways to find the solutions: 3. Just plug in the values of a, b and c, and do the calculations. We will look at this method in more detail now. About the Quadratic Formula Plus/Minus First of all what is that plus/minus thing that looks like ± ? But sometimes you don't get two real answers, and the "Discriminant" shows why ... Discriminant Do you see b2 - 4ac in the formula above? Using the Quadratic Formula. Standard Form | content, standard-form. Standard form is a way of writing down very large or very small numbers easily. 103 = 1000, so 4 × 103 = 4000 . So 4000 can be written as 4 × 10³ . This idea can be used to write even larger numbers down easily in standard form.

Small numbers can also be written in standard form. However, instead of the index being positive (in the above example, the index was 3), it will be negative. The rules when writing a number in standard form is that first you write down a number between 1 and 10, then you write × 10(to the power of a number). Example Write 81 900 000 000 000 in standard form: 81 900 000 000 000 = 8.19 × 1013 It’s 1013 because the decimal point has been moved 13 places to the left to get the number to be 8.19 Write 0.000 001 2 in standard form: It’s 10-6 because the decimal point has been moved 6 places to the right to get the number to be 1.2 On a calculator, you usually enter a number in standard form as follows: Type in the first number (the one between 1 and 10).

Calculate p × q. Binary Numbers | Computer science. Computer representation of numbers. Computers store numbers in a variety of ways, but all use base-2 arithmetic, rather than our base 10. Almost all computers bits in multiples of 8 to store numbers; one units of 8 bits is called a byte. There are two main ways to represent numbers: integer and floating point. Integer representation Suppose we consider positive integers only. What range of values can we represent with a single byte? 0000 0000 equals 0 0000 0001 1 0000 0010 2 0000 0011 3 ... 1111 1110 254 1111 1111 255 The range is 0 to 255.

N 0 to 2 -1 What happens if you try to add numbers to the highest possible value? Whoops. So, if you use integer storage, you must watch out for rollover/under. Signed integers: Suppose you want to keep track of positive and negative values. The range of values has changed from 0 to 255 unsigned -127 to +127 signed Yes, this simple scheme wastes two representations for zero (since +0 and -0 are the same). Challenge: You are in charge of the US Census for 2000. Floating point representations. Online Courses from the World's Experts. Computational Thinking - IAE-Pedia. Information Age Education (IAE) is an Oregon non-profit corporation created by David Moursund in July, 2007.

It works to improve the informal and formal education of people of all ages throughout the world. A number of people have contributed their time and expertise in developing the materials that are made available free in the various IAE publications. Click here to learn how you can help develop new IAE materials. Computers are incredibly fast, accurate, and stupid. Human beings are incredibly slow, inaccurate, and brilliant. Introduction The statement quoted above captures the essence of computational thinking. Here is a more recent description of computational thinking: Computational thinking is a way of solving problems, designing systems, and understanding human behavior that draws on concepts fundamental to computer science.

Human brains get better through informal and formal education and through regular use. Each type of brain has unique capabilities and limitations. Computational Thinking by Busra Zorba. Computational Thinking: A Digital Age Skill for Everyone. The Logic Lab: simulating simple circuits of logic gates. Logic Gate Simulator. Digital Circuits/Adders. Half Adder [ edit ] Consider adding two binary numbers together: We see that the bit in the "two's" column is generated when the addition carried over. A half-adder is a circuit which adds two bits together and outputs the sum of those two bits. The half-adder has two outputs: sum and carry . Sum represents the remainder of the integer division A+B/2, while carry is the result. Full Adder [ edit ] Half-adders have a major limitation in that they cannot accept a carry bit from a previous stage, meaning that they cannot be chained together to add multi-bit numbers.

As such, the full-adder can accept three bits as an input. The full-adder is usually shown as a single unit. Ripple-Carry Adder [ edit ] A ripple carry adder is simple several full adders connected in a series so that the carry must propagate through every full adder before the addition is complete. Propagation Delay in Full Adders [ edit ] A full adder block has the following worst case propagation delays: Carry-Save Adder [ edit ] The Base-2 System and the 8-bit Byte" The reason computers use the base-2 system is because it makes it a lot easier to implement them with current electronic technology. You could wire up and build computers that operate in base-10, but they would be fiendishly expensive right now. On the other hand, base-2 computers are relatively cheap. So computers use binary numbers, and therefore use binary digits in place of decimal digits.

The word bit is a shortening of the words "Binary digIT. " Whereas decimal digits have 10 possible values ranging from 0 to 9, bits have only two possible values: 0 and 1. Therefore, a binary number is composed of only 0s and 1s, like this: 1011. How do you figure out what the value of the binary number 1011 is? You can see that in binary numbers, each bit holds the value of increasing powers of 2. When you look at this sequence, 0 and 1 are the same for decimal and binary number systems. Bits are rarely seen alone in computers. Simple Gates" CHAPTER 8 — Binary Addition and Two's Complement. A Level Computing OCR exam board - Twos Complement - 2's complement. Math of Vector Art. Computational Thinking. Sites/default/files/activity_pdfs_full/unpluggedTeachersMar2010-USletter.pdf.

Computational thinking. Exploring Computational Thinking.