background preloader

Neanderthals

Facebook Twitter

Toothache? Neanderthals Might Have Reached for Aspirin, Too. WEDNESDAY, March 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Dental care was decidedly primitive back in the time of the Neanderthals.

Toothache? Neanderthals Might Have Reached for Aspirin, Too

But new research suggests these long-gone relatives of humans already had 21st century solutions to toothache pain -- aspirin, and perhaps even penicillin. The study was led by Laura Weyrich, of the Australian Center for Ancient DNA (ACAD) at the University of Adelaide. Her team examined dental plaque from the remains of four Neanderthals found in caves in Belgium and Spain. This was the oldest such plaque ever to be genetically analyzed -- between 42,000 to 50,000 years old. Weyrich said DNA analysis of ancient dental build-up can reveal a storehouse of knowledge. "Dental plaque traps microorganisms that lived in the mouth and pathogens found in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract," she explained in a university news release. Neanderthal Teeth From Spain And Belgium Reveal What They Ate And Who They Kissed.

A new study of the dental plaques of three Neanderthals reveals surprising facts about their lives, including what they ate, the diseases that ailed them and how they self-medicated (and smooched).

Neanderthal Teeth From Spain And Belgium Reveal What They Ate And Who They Kissed

Above, an illustration of Neanderthals in Spain shows them preparing to eat plants and mushrooms. Courtesy of Abel Grau/Comunicación CSIC hide caption toggle caption. Ancient skulls may belong to elusive humans called Denisovans. Since their discovery in 2010, the ex­tinct ice age humans called Deniso­vans have been known only from bits of DNA, taken from a sliver of bone in the Denisova Cave in Siberia, Russia.

Ancient skulls may belong to elusive humans called Denisovans

Now, two partial skulls from eastern China are emerging as prime candidates for showing what these shadowy people may have looked like. In a paper published this week in Science, a Chinese-U.S. team presents 105,000- to 125,000-year-old fossils they call “archaic Homo.” They note that the bones could be a new type of human or an eastern variant of Neandertals. But although the team avoids the word, “everyone else would wonder whether these might be Denisovans,” which are close cousins to Neandertals, says paleo­anthropologist Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London. The new skulls “definitely” fit what you’d expect from a Denisovan, adds paleoanthropologist María Martinón-Torres of the University College London—“something with an Asian flavor but closely related to Neandertals.”

Jersey was a must-see tourist destination for Neanderthals for over 100,000 years. New research led by the University of Southampton shows Neanderthals kept coming back to a coastal cave site in Jersey from at least 180,000 years ago until around 40,000 years ago.

Jersey was a must-see tourist destination for Neanderthals for over 100,000 years

As part of a re-examination of La Cotte de St Brelade and its surrounding landscape, archaeologists from Southampton, together with experts from two other universities and the British Museum, have taken a fresh look at artefacts and mammoth bones originally excavated from within the site’s granite cliffs in the 1970s. Their findings are published in the journal Antiquity. The researchers matched types of stone raw material used to make tools to detailed mapping of the geology of the sea bed, and studied in detail how they were made, carried and modified.

Were Neanderthals Religious? : 13.7: Cosmos And Culture. Imagine this scene: Inside a cave in Spain, a group of people gather around the grave of a toddler.

Were Neanderthals Religious? : 13.7: Cosmos And Culture

Hearths with lit fires, marked by 30 horns of animals including bison and red deer, surround the grave. A rhinoceros skull is nearby. A Cave in France Changes What We Thought We Knew About Neanderthals. In a French cave deep underground, scientists have discovered what appear to be 176,000-year-old man-made structures.

A Cave in France Changes What We Thought We Knew About Neanderthals

That’s 150,000 years earlier than any that have been discovered anywhere before. And they could only have been built by Neanderthals, people who were never before considered capable of such a thing. This is going to force a major shift in the way we see these early hominids. Researchers had thought that Neanderthals were profoundly primitive, and just barely human. This cave in France’s Aveyron Valley changes all that: It’s suddenly obvious that Neanderthals were not quite so unlike us. According to The Atlantic, Bruniquel Cave was first explored in 1990 by Bruno Kowalsczewski, who was 15 at the time. Some members of a local caving club managed to squeeze through the narrow, 30-meter long tunnel Kowalsczewski had dug to arrive in a passageway. SciNews What the? Neanderthals Built Mystery Cave Rings 175,000 Years Ago. They painted magnificent cave paintings.

Neanderthals Built Mystery Cave Rings 175,000 Years Ago

They mastered fire and used tools. And now we know they constructed complex buildings deep within subterranean caves, and they did it more than 175,000 years ago. Ancient DNA Sequencing Sheds Light on Ice Age European Population History. Oldest ever human genome sequence may rewrite human history. Javier Trueba, Madrid Scientific Films The oldest ever human nuclear DNA to be reconstructed and sequenced reveals Neanderthals in the making – and the need for a possible rewrite of our own origins.

Oldest ever human genome sequence may rewrite human history

Humans Interbred With Hominins on Multiple Occasions, Study Finds. Did Neanderthals eat their vegetables? Neanderthal genome shows evidence of early human interbreeding, inbreeding. The most complete sequence to date of the Neanderthal genome, using DNA extracted from a woman’s toe bone that dates back 50,000 years, reveals a long history of interbreeding among at least four different types of early humans living in Europe and Asia at that time, according to UC Berkeley scientists.

Neanderthal genome shows evidence of early human interbreeding, inbreeding

Family tree of the four groups of early humans living in Eurasia 50,000 years ago and the gene flow between the groups due to interbreeding. Population geneticist Montgomery Slatkin, graduate student Fernando Racimo and post-doctoral student Flora Jay were part of an international team of anthropologists and geneticists who generated a high-quality sequence of the Neanderthal genome and compared it with the genomes of modern humans and a recently recognized group of early humans called Denisovans. Neanderthals vs Humans?: German Scientists Bring Fossils into the Computer Age.

Visitors are greeted by three skulls with seashells in their eye sockets.

Neanderthals vs Humans?: German Scientists Bring Fossils into the Computer Age

On a table behind them, a student completes a detailed drawing of the teeth in a human jaw. The bone chamber lies behind a simple steel door on the ground floor. Located right next to the delivery entrance of the anatomy institute at Tel Aviv University, what looks like a janitor's storeroom is actually one of the world's largest treasure troves of human history. Nestled on foam within blue storage drawers are all sorts of crumbling bones, including arm bones, leg bones, wrist bones, ribs, jaw bones, children's skulls and a range of teeth. These are one-of-a-kind fossils that reveal a key episode in the history of the human species. Neanderthals. QI: some quite interesting facts about Neanderthals. The first fossilised remains of our closest cousin, Homo neanderthalis, were found in 1856 near Düsseldorf in the Neander river valley.

At the time scientists weren’t sure what they’d found: some claimed it was the remains of Mongol horsemen, others those of deformed Homo sapiens. It wasn’t until 1864 that Dr William King, the Irish geologist, was prepared to declare it a species of human with the name Homo neanderthalis in preference to the alternative offered by German biologist Ernst Haeckel, Homo stupidus. Not that King was much better. Referring to the skull, with its prominent brow ridge, he wrote that the “thoughts and desires which once dwelt within it never soared beyond those of a brute”.

In a Tooth, DNA From Some Very Old Cousins, the Denisovans. A tooth fossil discovered in a Siberian cave has yielded DNA from a vanished branch of the human tree, mysterious cousins called the Denisovans, scientists said Monday. Their analysis pushes back the oldest known evidence for Denisovans by 60,000 years, suggesting that the species was able to thrive in harsh climates for thousands of generations. The results also suggest that the Denisovans may have bred with other ancient hominins, relatives of modern humans whom science has yet to discover.

Todd Disotell, a molecular anthropologist at New York University who was not involved in the new study, said the report added to growing evidence that our species kept company with many near relatives over the past million years. The world, Dr. Interbreeding: Neanderthals and modern humans mated 50,000 years before we thought. Ever since geneticists sequenced the first Neanderthal genome in 2010, researchers have been reporting just how related humans are to their ancient, extinct cousins. Since then, there's been more research. And more. And more. Human evolution: Kissing cousins. HOW Neanderthal are you? That question sounds vaguely insulting. But unless you are African, or of recent African ancestry, the answer is likely to be 1-3%. Though Homo sapiens is the only type of human around at the moment, that was not true until recently. Ancestral Lines.

Nova - Decoding Neanderthals (PBS Documentary) Research finds Neanderthals were more thoughtful than we once imagined. Researcher Svante Paabo with a reconstructed Neanderthal skull. He says it’s not clear whether modern humans killed off these ancient relatives or simply outdid them in the competition for habitat. (Frank Vinken) Maybe it’s their famously protruding brow ridge or perhaps it’s the now-discredited notion that they were primitive scavengers too dumb to use language or symbolism, but somehow Neanderthals picked up a reputation as brutish, dim and mannerless cretins.

Yet the latest research on the history and habits of Neanderthals suggests that such portrayals of them are entirely undeserved. It turns out that Neanderthals were capable hunters who used tools and probably had some semblance of culture, and the DNA record shows that if you trace your ancestry to Europe or Asia, chances are very good that you have some Neanderthal DNA in your own genome.

Neanderthals were not inferior to modern humans, says CU-Boulder study. If you think Neanderthals were stupid and primitive, it’s time to think again. The widely held notion that Neanderthals were dimwitted and that their inferior intelligence allowed them to be driven to extinction by the much brighter ancestors of modern humans is not supported by scientific evidence, according to a researcher at the University of Colorado Boulder.

DNA research confirms recent interaction between Neanderthals and humans. Neanderthals speech similar to humans - per DNA evidence. Humans Did Not Wipe Out the Neanderthals, New Research Suggests. New evidence on Neanderthal mixing. Rethinking Neanderthals. Bruno Maureille unlocks the gate in a chain-link fence, and we walk into the fossil bed past a pile of limestone rubble, the detritus of an earlier dig. Oldest Cave Paintings May Be Creations of Neandertals, Not Modern Humans. Hand stencils in El Castillo cave are older than previously thought. Neanderthals not as portrayed in fiction-per science. Archaeologists at the University of York are challenging the traditional view that Neanderthal childhood was difficult, short and dangerous.

Neanderthals Cooked Their Veggies: Dental Plaque Reveals Eating Habits. Neanderthal. Neanderthals Talked. Evidence varies when Neanderthals died out. Much Earlier Split for Neanderthals, Humans? Skulls with mix of Neandertal and primitive traits illuminate human evolution.

Want a Selfie With a Neanderthal? Visit Europe’s Cave-Man Museums.