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Europe History - Part 2

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The Crusades Unknown. French Revolution Unknown. The French Revolution -In a Nutshell. The Industrial Revolution Explained (World History Review) Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni. The Hypogeum of Paola, Malta, (Ipoġew in Maltese) literally meaning "underground" in Greek, is a subterranean structure dating to the Saflieni phase (3000-2500 BC) in Maltese prehistory. Thought to have been originally a sanctuary, it became a necropolis in prehistoric times and the remains of more than 7,000 individuals have been found. It is the only known prehistoric underground temple in the world. The Hypogeum was depicted on a 2 cents 5 mils stamp issued in the Maltese Islands in 1980 to commemorate the acceptance by UNESCO of this unique structure in the World Heritage Site list.

It was closed to visitors between 1992 and 1996 for restoration works; since it reopened only 60 people per day are allowed entry. It was discovered by accident in 1902 when workers cutting cisterns for a new housing development broke through its roof. First Level[edit] The first level is very similar to tombs found in Xemxija in Malta. Second Level[edit] Hal Saflieni The Main Chamber[edit] Third Level[edit] Livius. Articles on Ancient History. Greek and Roman Materials.

Ancient Greece. Ancient Rome. Explore the Ruins of the Parthenon – An Interactive 360° View. Unbelievable Skeletons Unearthed From The Catacombs Of Rome. Back in 1578 came the fascinating discovery of a network of labyrinthine tombs, lurking deep beneath the street of Rome. The tombs were home to the decayed skeletons of early Christian martyrs – believed to be saints on account of their bravery & unwavering support of Christian beliefs.

Many of these skeletons (given the name ‘The Catacomb Saints’ by those who first discovered them) were then distributed across Europe (predominantly Germany) as replacements for the countless holy relics which had been smashed, stolen or destroyed during the Protestant Reformation. Once delivered, each skeleton was then clothed and adorned into a variety of precious jewels, expensive cloth, crowns, armour and even given wigs. They were put on display inside their designated churches as a reminder to all who visited, for the riches and wealth that awaited them post death – providing they swore allegiance to the Christian faith. It sounds like a tale straight from a Dan Brown novel doesn't it? Maps Of War: Visual History Of War, Religion, & Govt. Renaissance and Reformation.

Bonn_model_Roman_camp.jpg (JPEG Image, 1594 × 910 pixels) - Scaled (64%) Archaeologists Find Germany's Oldest Roman Military Fort. Updated Sept. 18 at 11:20 a.m. ET Archaeologists say they've identified the oldest known Roman military fortress in Germany, likely built to house thousands of troops during Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul in the late 50s B.C. Broken bits of Roman soldiers' sandals helped lead to the discovery. "From an archaeological point of view our findings are of particular interest because there are only few sites known that document Caesar's campaign in Gaul," researcher Sabine Hornung, of Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (JGU), told LiveScience in an email.

Researchers knew about the large site — close to the German town of Hermeskeil, near the French border — since the 19th century but lacked solid evidence about what it was. "Some remains of the wall are still preserved in the forest, but it hadn't been possible to prove that this was indeed a Roman military camp as archaeologists and local historians had long suspected," Hornung said in a statement from JGU. Roman military camp dating back to the conquest of Gaul throws light on a part of world history. Evidence confirms the location of the oldest Roman military fortification In the vicinity of Hermeskeil, a small town some 30 kilometers southeast of the city of Trier in the Hunsrueck region in the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, archaeologists from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have confirmed the location of the oldest Roman military fortification known in Germany to date.

These findings shed new light on the Roman conquest of Gaul. The camp was presumably built during Julius Caesars’ Gallic War in the late 50s B.C. Nearby lies a late Celtic settlement with monumental fortifications known as the “Hunnenring” or "Circle of the Huns," which functioned as one of the major centers of the local Celtic tribe called Treveri. Their territory is situated in the mountainous regions between the Rhine and Maas rivers. "The remnants of this military camp are the first pieces of archaeological evidence of this important episode of world history," comments Dr. Caesar’s Gallic Outpost. The discovery of a collection of 75 sandal nails has led German archaeologists to the rare identification of a temporary Roman military camp near the town of Hermeskeil, near Trier, in southwestern Germany. Directed by Sabine Hornung, an archaeologist at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the team uncovered the camp’s main gate, the flat stones that once paved its entrance, and grindstones used by the Romans to mill grain.

Scattered among the paving stones were bits of metal that the team quickly identified as sandal nails. Some of the nails were quite large—as much as an inch across— and had distinct workshop marks of a type used by the army, “a sort of cross with little dots” or studs, says Hornung. “That told us it was definitely a military camp,” she adds. Ground-penetrating radar surveys showed that the camp, built to house soldiers on the move, sprawls over nearly 65 acres. (Courtesy © Sabine Hornung, Arno Braun) GCSE Bitesize - Germany 1918 - 1939. Education For Death - The Making Of The Nazi (1943) Walt Disney. Events of the French Revolution. Events of the French Revolution Transform your history classroom. ActiveHistory provides entertaining, educational award-winning interactive simulations, decision-making games, self-marking quizzes, high-quality worksheets and detailed lesson plans for teachers and students.

Useful Links Home of the "Head to Head"Virtual Interviews Testimonials from subscribers 'Active History has helped make revision a fun experience for all students of all abilities. The decision making activities get pupils to think like the historical characters they have been studying. Carl Newman, Str Edward's College, Liverpool 'ActiveHistory is a valuable resource and provides a multitude of interesting and inventive activities. Emma Wyatt St. Note: A condensed version of the French Revolution Study Unit is also available (designed to take 7-8 teaching hours). History in the News for events of the French Revolution 1.

History weblinks for events of the French Revolution 1. Causes of the French Revolution. Causes of the French Revolution Transform your history classroom. ActiveHistory provides entertaining, educational award-winning interactive simulations, decision-making games, self-marking quizzes, high-quality worksheets and detailed lesson plans for teachers and students.

Useful Links Home of the "Head to Head"Virtual Interviews Testimonials from subscribers 'The students love the 'talking heads'! Activehistory has effectively used the internet to achieve what we've wanted for years, the sharing of excellent resources, easily accessible, well written but adaptable'. Alan Rawcliffe 'Active History has helped make revision a fun experience for all students of all abilities. Carl Newman, Str Edward's College, Liverpool Note: A condensed version of the French Revolution Study Unit is also available (designed to take 7-8 teaching hours). History in the News for Causes of the French Revolution 1. History weblinks for Causes of the French Revolution 1. Roman Conquest. Germany after the War, 1945-49. Livius. Articles on Ancient History. Greek and Roman Materials. Renaissance and Reformation.

The Industrial Revolution. European Imperialism. FRENCH REVOLUTION. Norse Mythology. Genealogy: Greek Pantheon. Greek Pantheon Below are several family trees showing the pantheon of the Greek gods. The first, very large genealogy displayed the Greek deities based on Hesiod, Homer and many other writers, while the other trees were based on the more obscure Orphic myth. Pantheon of Greek Deities The main sources for this genealogy come from Hesiod, Homer and Apollodorus. I have not given the name of all the individual deities, because they varied in numbers, like the Oceanids with 3000 sisters and the Nereids with 50 sisters, Muses have nine sisters and Graces have three sisters. Similarly, you will find that the Hundred-Handed, Cyclopes and the Gigantes can be found in another genealogy, titled Giants and Monsters.

According to other sources (like Apollodorus), the goddess Dione was sometimes seen as Titaness, but not in Hesiod's Theogony, where she was an Oceanid (daughter of Oceanus). If you are interested in the genealogy of the Roman deities, then see my new Roman Deities family tree. Geology of Iceland. The eruption of Laki in 1783 caused much devastation and loss of life and affected Europe. In the period 1965 to 1969 the new island of Surtsey was created on the southwest coast by a volcanic eruption. Chronology[edit] Opening of the North Atlantic[edit] Cenozoic fossiliferous strata[edit] Vegetational changesPast climateOrigin of the strataFossil preservation Glaciations[edit] Glacier extentNunataks and icefree areasInterglacialsTuyas and subcanism Holocene changes and volcanism[edit] Human impact and natural catastrophes[edit] Overgrazing Soil erosion Current climate change[edit] Current tectonics[edit] Rift jumpSeismic activityVolcano tectonics See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Music of Germany. Forms of German-language music include Neue Deutsche Welle ( NDW ), Krautrock , Hamburger Schule , Volksmusik , Classical , German hip hop , trance , Schlager , Neue Deutsche Härte ( NDH ), and diverse varieties of folk music , such as Waltz and Medieval metal . German Classical is among the most performed in the world; German composers include some of the most accomplished and popular in history, among them Johann Sebastian Bach , Ludwig van Beethoven , Franz Schubert , Johannes Brahms , Robert Schumann and Richard Wagner .

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , born in Salzburg (now in Austria), was among many opera composers who created the field of German opera . The beginning of what is now considered German music could be traced back to the 12th-century compositions of mystic abbess Hildegard of Bingen , who wrote a variety of hymns and other kinds of Christian music . Minnesingers and Meistersingers [ edit source | edit beta ] Chorale [ edit source | edit beta ] Opera [ edit source | edit beta ] Home | Mapire - Historical Maps of the Habsburg Empire. HistoricMaps: Windsor County 1869. European Middle Ages. International Newspaper Archives. More and more digitized archives for historical newspapers from around the world are coming online. A large number are available for free, covering a broad swath world history, from the 1600s to modern times.

Vintage newspaper archives from all over the globe are highlighted on this page (other than US and Europe archives, which are on other pages). Headlines, articles, display ads, broadsides, classifieds, sports scores, financials, the rise and fall of empires…all there for the taking. News Flash! European Newspaper Archives (see separate page) U.S. Canadian Newspaper Archives Canadian newspapers and the Second World War. British Columbia, Canada newspaper archives, from 1926 on, courtesy of the Terrace, BC library. The British Colonist, British Columbia, 1859-1860. More British Columbia, Canada papers from the Prince George newspaper project, covering 1909-1976, with more anticipated. Toronto Star, covers the past century. Manitoba, Canada Newspaper Archives, 1859-present.

Europe. Sunstone (medieval) Iceland spar, possibly the Icelandic medieval sunstone used to locate the sun in the sky when obstructed from view. A stone found in Alderney amid the wreckage of a 16th-century warship in early 2013 may lend evidence of the existence of sunstones as navigational devices.[2] One medieval source in Iceland, "Rauðúlfs þáttr",[3][4] mentions the sunstone as a mineral by means of which the sun could be located in an overcast and snowy sky by holding it up and noting where it emitted, reflected or transmitted light (hvar geislaði úr honum).[5] Sunstones are also mentioned in Hrafns saga Sveinbjarnarsonar (13th century)[6] and in church and monastic inventories (14th–15th century) without discussing their attributes.

The sunstone texts of Hrafns saga Sveinbjarnarsonar were copied to all four versions of the medieval hagiography Guðmundar saga góða.[7] The description in "Rauðúlfs þáttr" of the use of the sunstone is as follows: Two of the original medieval texts on the sunstone are allegorical. Count of St. Germain. An engraving of the Count of St. Germain by Nicolas Thomas made in 1783, after a painting then owned by the Marquise d'Urfe and now apparently lost.[1] Contained at the Louvre in France[2] The Comte de Saint Germain (born 1712?

;[3] died 27 February 1784)[4] was a European courtier, with an interest in science and the arts. He achieved prominence in European high society of the mid-1700s. In order to deflect inquiries as to his origins, he would invent fantasies, such as that he was 500 years old, leading Voltaire to sarcastically dub him "The Wonderman".[5] His birth and background are obscure, but towards the end of his life he claimed that he was a son of Prince Francis II Rákóczi of Transylvania. Background[edit] The Count claimed to be a son of Francis II Rákóczi, the Prince of Transylvania, possibly legitimate, possibly by Duchess Violante Beatrice of Bavaria.[7] This would account for his wealth and fine education.[8] It also explains why kings would accept him as one of their own. Nazi Germany. Scotland profile - Overview.

England profile - Overview. 13 December 2012Last updated at 11:48 ET England is the largest constituent part of the United Kingdom, and accounts for 83 per cent of its population and most of its economic activity. Issues affecting the United Kingdom as a whole therefore also apply to England in particular, especially in the case of identity politics. England's continuing contribution to world civilisation is significant, ranging from language to sport, music and law. The various kingdoms set up by Germanic settlers in the 5th-6th centuries were finally united into the Kingdom of England between 927 and 954. The Norman Conquest of 1066 brought in a new ruling class from northern France and heavily influenced the language, culture and European orientation of the country. Oxford University is England's oldest university Continue reading the main story Politics: England has no governmental institutions separate from those of the UK.

Country profiles compiled by BBC Monitoring Identity Culture Law. Cartographies of Time: A Visual History of the Timeline. By Maria Popova A chronology of one of our most inescapable metaphors, or what Macbeth has to do with Galileo. I was recently asked to select my all-time favorite books for the lovely Ideal Bookshelf project by The Paris Review’s Thessaly la Force and artist Jane Mount. Despite the near-impossible task of shrinking my boundless bibliophilia to a modest list of dozen or so titles, I was eventually able to do it, and the selection included Cartographies of Time: A History of the Timeline (public library | IndieBound) by Daniel Rosenberg and Anthony Grafton — among both my 7 favorite books on maps and my 7 favorite books on time, this lavish collection of illustrated timelines traces the history of graphic representations of time in Europe and the United States from 1450 to the present, featuring everything from medieval manuscripts to websites to a chronological board game developed by Mark Twain.

The first chapter, Time in Print, begins with a context for these images: Donating = Loving. Cartographies of Time: A History of the Timeline (9781568987637): Anthony Grafton, Daniel Rosenberg: Books. Arms And Armor.

The Roman Empire

Medieval History.