A comprehensive networking of Philosoph: it's subjects, finer points, and contributors. Dec 17
The philosophy of science is concerned with all the assumptions, foundations, methods , implications of science , and with the use and merit of science. This discipline sometimes overlaps metaphysics , ontology and epistemology , viz., when it explores whether scientific results comprise a study of truth . In addition to these central problems of science as a whole, many philosophers of science consider problems that apply to particular sciences (e.g. philosophy of biology or philosophy of physics ). Some philosophers of science also use contemporary results in science to reach conclusions about philosophy.
Philosophy of religion is a branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion , including the nature and existence of God , the examination of religious experience, analysis of religious vocabulary and texts, and the relationship of religion and science . [ 1 ] It is an ancient discipline, being found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy, and relates to many other branches of philosophy and general thought, including metaphysics , logic , and history . [ 2 ] Philosophy of religion is frequently discussed outside of academia through popular books and debates, mostly regarding the existence of God and problem of evil . The philosophy of religion differs from religious philosophy in that it seeks to discuss questions regarding the nature of religion as a whole, rather than examining the problems brought forth by a particular belief system.
A phrenological mapping [ 1 ] of the brain . Phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain. Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind , mental events , mental functions , mental properties , consciousness , and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. The mind-body problem , i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as one key issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body, such as how consciousness is possible and the nature of particular mental states. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Dualism and monism are the two major schools of thought that attempt to resolve the mind-body problem.
Philosophers of law ask "what is law?" and "what should it be?" Jurisprudence is the study and theory of law .
Philosophy of language is concerned with four central problems: the nature of meaning , language use , language cognition , and the relationship between language and reality . For continental philosophers , however, the philosophy of language tends to be dealt with, not as a separate topic, but as a part of logic (see the section "Language and continental philosophy" below). First, philosophers of language inquire into the nature of meaning, and seek to explain what it means to "mean" something. Topics in that vein include the nature of synonymy , the origins of meaning itself, and how any meaning can ever really be known. Another project under this heading of special interest to analytic philosophers of language is the investigation into the manner in which sentences are composed into a meaningful whole out of the meaning of its parts . Second, they would like to understand what speakers and listeners do with language in communication , and how it is used socially.
Aesthetics ( also spelled æsthetics ) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art , beauty , and taste , with the creation and appreciation of beauty. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. [ 3 ] More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature ." [ 4 ] [ 5 ] More specific aesthetic theory, often with practical implications, relating to a particular branch of the arts is divided into areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory , film theory and music theory . [ edit ] Etymology
Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of The School of Athens , a fresco by Raphael . Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers. Political philosophy is the study of such topics as politics , liberty , justice , property , rights , law , and the enforcement of a legal code by authority : what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate , what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics that does not necessarily belong to the technical discipline of philosophy .
Ethics , also known as moral philosophy , is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct . [ 1 ] The term comes from the Greek word ethos , which means "character". Ethics is a complement to Aesthetics in the philosophy field of Axiology . In philosophy, ethics studies the moral behavior in humans, and how one should act. Ethics may be divided into four major areas of study: [ 1 ] Meta-ethics , about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth values (if any) may be determined; Normative ethics , about the practical means of determining a moral course of action; Applied ethics , about how moral outcomes can be achieved in specific situations; Descriptive ethics , also known as comparative ethics, is the study of people's beliefs about morality;
Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world , [ 1 ] although the term is not easily defined. [ 2 ] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms: [ 3 ] What is there ? What is it like ? A person who studies metaphysics is called a metaphysicist [ 4 ] or a metaphysician . [ 5 ] The metaphysician attempts to clarify the fundamental notions by which people understand the world, e.g., existence , objects and their properties , space and time , cause and effect , and possibility .
Logic (from the Greek λογική , logikē ) [ 1 ] refers to both the study of modes of reasoning (which are valid , and which are fallacious ) [ 2 ] [ 3 ] and the use of valid reasoning. In the latter sense, logic is used in most intellectual activities, including philosophy and science, but in the first sense, is primarily studied in the disciplines of philosophy , mathematics , semantics , and computer science . It examines general forms that arguments may take.
Epistemology ( i / ɨ ˌ p ɪ s t ɨ ˈ m ɒ l ə dʒ i / from Greek ἐπιστήμη - epistēmē , meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος - logos , meaning "study of") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It questions what knowledge is, how it is acquired, and the possible extent to which a given subject or entity can be known. Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth , belief , and justification . The term was introduced by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier (1808–1864). [ 3 ] The field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge . [ edit ] Knowledge