Humanistisk videnskabsteori og videnskabelig metode
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Human science is the study and interpretation of the experiences, activities, constructs, and artifacts associated with human beings. The study of the human sciences attempts to expand and enlighten the human being's knowledge of his or her existence, its interrelationship with other species and systems, and the development of artifacts to perpetuate the human expression and thought. It is the study of human phenomena. The study of the human experience is historical and current in nature. It requires the evaluation and interpretation of the historic human experience and the analysis of current human activity to gain an understanding of human phenomena and to project the outlines of human evolution.
Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, [ 3 ] [ 4 ] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social , behavioral , or cognitive scientist . Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior , while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore concepts such as perception , cognition , attention , emotion , phenomenology , motivation , brain functioning , personality , behavior , and interpersonal relationships .
For a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of economics . Economics is the social science that analyzes the production , distribution , and consumption of goods and services . The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek οἰκονομία ( oikonomia , "management of a household, administration") from οἶκος ( oikos , "house") + νόμος ( nomos , "custom" or "law"), hence "rules of the house(hold)". [ 1 ] Political economy was the earlier name for the subject, but economists in the late 19th century suggested "economics" as a shorter term for "economic science" that also avoided a narrow political-interest connotation and as similar in form to " mathematics ", "ethics", and so forth. [ 2 ] A focus of the subject is how economic agents behave or interact and how economies work. Consistent with this, a primary textbook distinction is between microeconomics and macroeconomics.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία , geographia , lit. "earth description" [ 1 ] ) is the science that studies the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth . [ 2 ] A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276-194 BC). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of the natural and the human phenomena (geography as the study of distribution), the area studies (places and regions), the study of the man-land relationship, and the research in the earth sciences . [ 3 ] Nonetheless, the modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical science ".
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest known activities in descriptive linguistics have been attributed to Pāṇini around 500 BCE, with his analysis of Sanskrit in Ashtadhyayi . [ 6 ] The first subfield of linguistics is the study of language structure, or grammar . This focuses on the system of rules followed by the users of a language. It includes the study of morphology (the formation and composition of words), syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words), and phonology (sound systems). Phonetics is a related branch of linguistics concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds and nonspeech sounds, and how they are produced and perceived.
Anthropology ( pron.: / æ n θ r ɵ ˈ p ɒ l ə dʒ i / ) is the "science of humanity ." [ 1 ] It has origins in the humanities , the natural sciences , and the social sciences . [ 2 ] The term " anthropology " is from the Greek anthrōpos ( ἄνθρωπος ), "man", understood to mean humankind or humanity, and -logia (-λογία), "discourse" or "study." Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology has been distinguished from other social sciences by its emphasis on in-depth examination of context, cross-cultural comparisons , and the importance it places on participant-observation , or long-term, experiential immersion in the area of research.
Montage of some highly influential scientists from a variety of scientific fields. From left to right: Top row: Archimedes , Aristotle , Ibn al-Haytham , Leonardo da Vinci , Galileo Galilei , Antonie van Leeuwenhoek ; Second row: Isaac Newton , James Hutton , Antoine Lavoisier , John Dalton , Charles Darwin , Gregor Mendel ; Third row: Louis Pasteur , James Clerk Maxwell , Henri Poincaré , Sigmund Freud , Nikola Tesla , Max Planck ; Fourth row: Ernest Rutherford , Marie Curie , Albert Einstein , Niels Bohr , Erwin Schrödinger , Enrico Fermi ; Bottom row: Alan Turing , Richard Feynman , E. O.
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality , existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument . [ 3 ] In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group". [ 4 ] The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία ( philosophia ), which literally means "love of wisdom". [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras . [ 8 ] A "philosopher" was understood as a word which contrasted with " sophist ".
Political science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government, and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. [ 1 ] It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics , and the analysis of political systems and political behavior. Political scientists "see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions, and from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works." [ 2 ] Political science intersects with other fields; including economics , law , sociology , history , anthropology , public administration , public policy , national politics, international relations , comparative politics , psychology , political organization , and political theory .
Sociology is the scientific study of human society [ 1 ] and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions . [ 2 ] It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation [ 3 ] and critical analysis [ 4 ] to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity, structures, and functions. A goal for many sociologists is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure . [ 5 ] The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification , social class , culture , social mobility , religion , secularization , law , and deviance .