Agalmatophilia. Clinical study Agalmatophilia became a subject of clinical study with the publication of Richard von Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis. Krafft-Ebing recorded an 1877 case of a gardener falling in love with a statue of the Venus de Milo and being discovered attempting coitus with it. Fantasy, transformation, role-play An important fantasy for some individuals is being transformed into the preferred object (such as a statue) and experiencing an associated state of immobility or paralysis.
Such fantasies may be extended to role-playing, and the self-coined term used by fetishists who enjoy being transformed into what appears to be a "rubber doll" or "latex doll". In the arts Sexualised life-size dolls have extensively featured in the work of famous art photographers such as Hans Bellmer, Bernard Faucon, Helmut Newton, Morton Bartlett, Katan Amano, Kishin Shinoyama, and Ryoichi Yoshida. See also Notes References Alexandre, Elisabeth. (2005). Hypoxia (medical) Hypoxia (also known as Hypoxiation or Anoxemia) is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body.
Although hypoxia is often a pathological condition, variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during hypoventilation training or strenuous physical exercise. Hypoxia differs from hypoxemia in that hypoxia refers to a state in which oxygen supply is insufficient, whereas hypoxemia refers specifically to states that have low arterial oxygen supply. Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as "anoxia". Hypoxia is also a serious consequence of preterm birth in the neonate. The symptoms of generalized hypoxia depend on its severity and acceleration of onset.
Extreme pain may also be felt at or around the site. Apophenia. Apophenia /æpɵˈfiːniə/ is the experience of seeing patterns or connections in random or meaningless data. The term is attributed to Klaus Conrad by Peter Brugger, who defined it as the "unmotivated seeing of connections" accompanied by a "specific experience of an abnormal meaningfulness", but it has come to represent the human tendency to seek patterns in random information in general, such as with gambling and paranormal phenomena. Meanings and forms In 2008, Michael Shermer coined the word "patternicity", defining it as "the tendency to find meaningful patterns in meaningless noise". In The Believing Brain (2011), Shermer says that we have "the tendency to infuse patterns with meaning, intention, and agency", which Shermer calls "agenticity". In 2011, parapsychologist David Luke proposed that apophenia is one end of a spectrum and that the opposite behaviour, the tendency to attribute chance probability to apparently patterned data, can be called "randomania".
Intuitionism. In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach where mathematics is considered to be purely the result of the constructive mental activity of humans. That is, given a set of axioms, the only propositions that can exist are those that can be constructed, directly or indirectly, by these axioms. In other words, for any proposition only a constructive proof may be used to examine its validity. Proofs by contradiction and proofs by induction are rejected. Truth and proof To an intuitionist, the claim that an object with certain properties exists is a claim that an object with those properties can be constructed. Any mathematical object is considered to be a product of a construction of a mind, and therefore, the existence of an object is equivalent to the possibility of its construction.
The interpretation of negation is different in intuitionist logic than in classical logic. Intuitionism and infinity See also Gunk (mereology) In mereology, an area of philosophical logic, the term gunk applies to any whole whose parts all have further proper parts. That is, a gunky object is not made of indivisible atoms: If something is made of atomless gunk then it divides forever into smaller and smaller parts—it is infinitely divisible. However, a line segment is infinitely divisible, and yet has atomic parts: the points. A hunk of gunk does not even have atomic parts ‘at infinity’; all parts of such an object have proper parts. If point-sized objects are always simple, then a gunky object does not have any point-sized parts.
Gunk is an important test case for accounts of the composition of material objects: for instance, Ted Sider has challenged Peter van Inwagen's account of composition because it is inconsistent with the possibility of gunk. The term was first used by David Lewis in his work Parts of Classes (1991). Jump up ^ Sider, Theodore (1993). Fad. Pet rocks were a short-lived fad in the 1970s. A fad is any form of behavior that develops among a large population and is collectively followed enthusiastically for a period of time, generally as a result of the behavior being perceived as popular by one's peers or being deemed "cool" by social media. A fad is said to "catch on" when the number of people adopting it begins to increase rapidly.
The behavior will normally fade quickly once the perception of novelty is gone. The specific nature of the behavior associated with a fad can be of any type including language usage, apparel, financial investment, and even food. Apart from general novelty, fads may be driven by mass media programming, emotional excitement, peer pressure, or the desire of "being hip".Fads may also be set by popular celebrities. In economics, the term is used in a similar way. See also Notes References Arena, Barbara (2001). External links FADSHOW - FAD videos centre. Deltiology. A postcard collection Deltiology (from Greek δελτίον, deltion, diminutive of δέλτος, deltos, "writing tablet, letter"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study and collection of postcards. Professor Randall Rhoades of Ashland, Ohio, coined a word in 1945 that became the accepted description of the study of picture postcards. It took about 20 years for the name to appear in the dictionary the first time. Compared to philately, the identification of a postcard's place and time of production can often be an impossible task because postcards, unlike stamps, are produced in a decentralised, unregulated manner.
For this reason, some collectors choose to limit their acquisitions to cards by specific artists and publishers, or by time and location. Identification There are some general rules to dating when a postcard was printed. Postcards are generally sent within a few years of their printing so the postmark helps date a postcard. Practice Worldwide popularity Notes Compulsive hoarding. Compulsive hoarding in an apartment. Compulsive hoarding (more accurately described as "hoarding disorder") is a pattern of behavior that is characterized by the excessive acquisition of and inability or unwillingness to discard large quantities of objects that cover the living areas of the home and cause significant distress or impairment. Compulsive hoarding behavior has been associated with health risks, impaired functioning, economic burden, and adverse effects on friends and family members. When clinically significant enough to impair functioning, hoarding can prevent typical uses of space so as to limit activities such as cooking, cleaning, moving through the house, and sleeping.
It can also be dangerous if it puts the individual or others at risk from fire, falling, poor sanitation, and other health concerns. In 2008 a study was conducted to determine if there is a significant link between hoarding and interference in occupational and social functioning. Symptoms Phylogenetic tree. In a rooted phylogenetic tree, each node with descendants represents the inferred most recent common ancestor of the descendants, and the edge lengths in some trees may be interpreted as time estimates. Each node is called a taxonomic unit. Internal nodes are generally called hypothetical taxonomic units, as they cannot be directly observed. Trees are useful in fields of biology such as bioinformatics, systematics, and comparative phylogenetics. Unrooted trees illustrate only the relatedness of the leaf nodes and do not require the ancestral root to be known or inferred.
History Charles Darwin (1859) also produced one of the first illustrations and crucially popularized the notion of an evolutionary "tree" in his seminal book The Origin of Species. Over a century later, evolutionary biologists still use tree diagrams to depict evolution because such diagrams effectively convey the concept that speciation occurs through the adaptive and semirandom splitting of lineages. Types Consortium for the Barcode of Life. The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) is an international initiative dedicated to supporting the development of DNA barcoding as a global standard for species identification. CBOL's Secretariat Office is hosted by the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. Barcoding was proposed in 2003 by Prof. Paul Hebert of the University of Guelph in Ontario as a way of distinguishing and identifying species with a short standardized gene sequence.
Hebert proposed the 648 bases of the Folmer region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome-C oxidase-1 as the standard barcode region. Dr. Hebert is the Director of the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, and the International Barcode of Life Project (iBOL), all headquartered at the University of Guelph. CBOL was created in May 2004 with support of the Alfred P. References Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S.L., and J.R. deWaard. 2003. External links Sequential hermaphroditism. Sequential hermaphroditism (called dichogamy in botany) is a type of hermaphroditism that occurs in many fish, gastropoda and plants. Sequential hermaphroditism occurs when the individual changes sex at some point in their life.
They can change from a male to female (protandry), or from female to male (protogyny). Those that change gonadal sex can have both female and male germ cells in the gonads or can change from one complete gonadal type to the other during their last life stage. Individual flowers are also called sequentially hermaphrodite, although the plant as a whole may have functionally male and functionally female flowers open at the same time. Zoology Protandry Protandrous hermaphrodites refer to organisms that are born male and at some point in their lifespan change sex to female.
Protandrous animals include clownfish. Other examples of protandrous animals include: The ctenophore Coeloplana gonoctena. Protogyny Ultimate causes Proximate causes Aposematism. Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σ̑ημα sema sign, coined by Edward Bagnall Poulton), perhaps most commonly known in the context of warning coloration, describes a family of antipredator adaptations where a warning signal is associated with the unprofitability of a prey item to potential predators. Aposematism is one form of an "advertising" signal (with many others existing, such as the bright colours of flowers which lure pollinators).
The warning signal may take the form of conspicuous colours, sounds, odours or other perceivable characteristics. Aposematic signals are beneficial for both the predator and prey, both of which avoid potential harm. Aposematism is exploited in Müllerian mimicry, where species with strong defences evolve to resemble one another.
By mimicking similarly coloured species, the warning signal to predators is shared, causing them to learn more quickly at less of a cost to each of the species. Etymology Defence mechanism Behaviour