Manifold

The surface of the Earth requires (at least) two charts to include every point. Here the globe is decomposed into charts around the North and South Poles. The concept of a manifold is central to many parts of geometry and modern mathematical physics because it allows more complicated structures to be described and understood in terms of the relatively well-understood properties of Euclidean space. Manifolds naturally arise as solution sets of systems of equations and as graphs of functions. Manifolds may have additional features. One important class of manifolds is the class of differentiable manifolds. Motivational examples Circle Figure 1: The four charts each map part of the circle to an open interval, and together cover the whole circle. The top and right charts overlap: their intersection lies in the quarter of the circle where both the x- and the y-coordinates are positive. Figure 2: A circle manifold chart based on slope, covering all but one point of the circle. and

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Math and Music – Equations and Ratios Previously in the “math and music” lesson we derived equations for expressing intervals as functions of relative frequencies. This week we’re going to define conventions for interval sizes and then derive three variables where we can determine the composition of any frequency ratio. Guess what – all intervals can be described as different combinations of the octave, perfect fifth and major third – the first three overtones. In the last lesson we talked about the frequency ratios of common intervals.

Geometry Geometry (from the Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a body of practical knowledge concerning lengths, areas, and volumes, with elements of formal mathematical science emerging in the West as early as Thales (6th Century BC). By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment—Euclidean geometry—set a standard for many centuries to follow.[1] Archimedes developed ingenious techniques for calculating areas and volumes, in many ways anticipating modern integral calculus.

Riemannian manifold In differential geometry, a (smooth) Riemannian manifold or (smooth) Riemannian space (M,g) is a real smooth manifold M equipped with an inner product on the tangent space at each point that varies smoothly from point to point in the sense that if X and Y are vector fields on M, then is a smooth function. The family Vector space Vector addition and scalar multiplication: a vector v (blue) is added to another vector w (red, upper illustration). Below, w is stretched by a factor of 2, yielding the sum v + 2w. An example of a vector space is that of Euclidean vectors, which may be used to represent physical quantities such as forces: any two forces (of the same type) can be added to yield a third, and the multiplication of a force vector by a real multiplier is another force vector.

Detexify LaTeX handwritten symbol recognition Want a Mac app? Lucky you. The Mac app is finally stable enough. See how it works on Vimeo. Download the latest version here. Restriction: In addition to the LaTeX command the unlicensed version will copy a reminder to purchase a license to the clipboard when you select a symbol. Visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light. The resulting perception is also known as eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular). The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system, and are the focus of much research in psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and molecular biology, collectively referred to as vision science. Visual system Main article: Visual system

Riemannian geometry Elliptic geometry is also sometimes called "Riemannian geometry". Riemannian geometry is the branch of differential geometry that studies Riemannian manifolds, smooth manifolds with a Riemannian metric, i.e. with an inner product on the tangent space at each point which varies smoothly from point to point. This gives, in particular, local notions of angle, length of curves, surface area, and volume. Octonion In mathematics, the octonions are a normed division algebra over the real numbers, usually represented by the capital letter O, using boldface O or blackboard bold . There are only four such algebras, the other three being the real numbers R, the complex numbers C, and the quaternions H.

Dimensions Home A film for a wide audience! Nine chapters, two hours of maths, that take you gradually up to the fourth dimension. Mathematical vertigo guaranteed! Background information on every chapter: see "Details". Click on the image on the left to watch the trailer ! Perspective (graphical) Staircase in two-point perspective. Perspective (from Latin: perspicere to see through) in the graphic arts, such as drawing, is an approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects are drawn: Smaller as their distance from the observer increasesForeshortened: the size of an object's dimensions along the line of sight are relatively shorter than dimensions across the line of sight

Differential geometry of surfaces In mathematics, the differential geometry of surfaces deals with smooth surfaces with various additional structures, most often, a Riemannian metric. Surfaces have been extensively studied from various perspectives: extrinsically, relating to their embedding in Euclidean space and intrinsically, reflecting their properties determined solely by the distance within the surface as measured along curves on the surface. One of the fundamental concepts investigated is the Gaussian curvature, first studied in depth by Carl Friedrich Gauss (articles of 1825 and 1827), who showed that curvature was an intrinsic property of a surface, independent of its isometric embedding in Euclidean space. Overview Polyhedra in the Euclidean space, such as the boundary of a cube, are among the first surfaces encountered in geometry. It is also possible to define smooth surfaces, in which each point has a neighborhood diffeomorphic to some open set in E2, the Euclidean plane.

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