background preloader


Eschatology i/ˌɛskəˈtɒlədʒi/ is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity. This concept is commonly referred to as the "end of the world" or "end time". The word arises from the Greek ἔσχατος eschatos meaning "last" and -logy meaning "the study of", first used in English around 1550.[1] The Oxford English Dictionary defines eschatology as "The department of theological science concerned with ‘the four last things: death, judgment, heaven and hell’. In the context of mysticism, the phrase refers metaphorically to the end of ordinary reality and reunion with the Divine. History is often divided into "ages" (aeons), which are time periods each with certain commonalities. Most modern eschatology and apocalypticism, both religious and secular, involve the violent disruption or destruction of the world; whereas Christian and Jewish eschatologies view the end times as the consummation or perfection of God's creation of the world.

Heaven Heaven is often described as a "higher place", the holiest place, a Paradise, in contrast to Hell or the Underworld or the "low places", and universally or conditionally accessible by earthly beings according to various standards of divinity, goodness, piety, faith, or other virtues or right beliefs or simply the Will of God. Some believe in the possibility of a Heaven on Earth in a World to Come. Etymology[edit] The modern English word heaven is derived from the earlier (Middle English) heven (attested 1159); this in turn was developed from the previous Old English form heofon. By c. 1000, heofon was being used in reference to the Christianized "place where God dwells", but originally, it had signified "sky, firmament"[1] (e.g. in Beowulf, c. 725). Entry into heaven[edit] Religions that speak about heaven differ on how (and if) one gets into it, either in the afterlife or while still alive. Ancient Near East religions[edit] Assyria[edit] Egypt[edit] Hurrian and Hittite myths[edit]

Nativity of Jesus The Nativity of Jesus, also The Nativity, refers to the accounts of the birth of Jesus, primarily based on the two accounts in the gospels of Luke and Matthew, and secondarily on some apocryphal texts. The canonical gospels of Luke and Matthew both describe Jesus as born in Bethlehem in Judea, to a virgin mother. In the Gospel of Luke account, Joseph and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, and Jesus is born there and laid in a manger.[1] Angels proclaim him a savior for all people, and shepherds come to adore him. In the Matthew account, astronomers follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the King of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and later settles in Nazareth. Canonical gospels[edit] The accounts of the Nativity of Jesus in the New Testament appear in two of the four Canonical Gospels, namely the Gospel of Luke and the Gospel of Matthew. Gospel of Luke[edit]

Resurrection of the dead A resurrection of the dead is a common component of a number of eschatologies, most commonly in Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian eschatology. The phrase refers to an event in the future — multiple prophecies in the histories of these religions assert that the dead will be brought back to life at some point in the future. A minority claim this has already happened in the past[1] or is occurring now without most knowing it.[2] Most Christian eschatologies include belief in a universal resurrection of all of the dead, while a minority, such as the Christadelphians,[3] believe that only a select few will be resurrected. Some Protestants interpret the Book of Revelation to indicate two resurrections of the dead - at either end of a millennium.[4] Zoroastrianism[edit] Frashokereti is the Zoroastrian doctrine of a final renovation of the universe, when evil will be destroyed, and everything else will be then in perfect unity with God (Ahura Mazda). Judaism[edit] Hebrew Bible[edit]

Last Judgment The Last Judgment by Lochner in the 15th century. The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, or The Day of the Lord or in Islam Yawm al-Qiyāmah or Yawm ad-Din is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism. Christianity[edit] Christian sources[edit] The doctrine and iconographic depiction of the "Last Judgment" are drawn from many passages from the apocalyptic sections of the Bible. It appears most directly in The Sheep and the Goats section of the Gospel of Matthew where the judgment is entirely based on help given or refused to "the least of these":[2] When the Son of Man comes in His glory. The doctrine is further supported by passages in the Books of Daniel, Isaiah and the Revelation: And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. Also, Matthew 3:10–12: Matthew 13:40–43: Luke 12:4–5, 49: Catholicism[edit]

Second Coming Greek icon of Second Coming, c.1700 In Christianity, the Second Coming, sometimes called the second advent of Christ or the parousia, is the anticipated return of Jesus to Earth. The belief is based on prophecies found in the canonical gospels and is part of most Christian eschatologies. Most English versions of the Nicene Creed in current use include the following statements: "...he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. Terminology[edit] Several different terms are used to refer to the Second Coming of Christ: Epiphany[edit] In the New Testament, the Greek word ἐπιφάνεια (epiphaneia, appearing) is used five times to refer to the return of Christ.[1] Parousia[edit] The etymology of Greek word parousia is related to para "beside" ousia "presence". Definitions[edit] In the Lexicon of Joseph Henry Thayer, the Greek word parousia is defined as Strong's G3952: ...In the N. And in the Bauer-Danker Lexicon: Christian views[edit] 1st century[edit] Preterism[edit]

Glossolalia Icon depicting apostles & the Theotokos filled with the Holy Spirit (notice fire symbol above their heads.) Glossolalia, often understood among Protestant Christians as speaking in tongues, is the fluid vocalizing of speech-like syllables that lack any readily comprehended meaning, in some cases as part of religious practice.[1] Some consider it as a part of a sacred language. It is a common practice amongst Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. Glossolalia also sometimes refers to xenoglossy, the putative speaking of a natural language previously unknown to the speaker. Etymology[edit] "Glossolalia" is constructed from the Greek word γλωσσολαλία, itself a compound of the words γλῶσσα (glossa), meaning "tongue" or "language"[2] and λαλέω (laleō), "to speak, talk, chat, prattle, or to make a sound".[3] The Greek expression (in various forms) appears in the New Testament in the books of Acts and First Corinthians. Linguistics[edit] In 1972, William J. Glossolalia in Christianity[edit]

Holy Spirit (Christianity) The New Testament includes over 90 references to the Holy Spirit.[4] The sacredness of the Holy Spirit is affirmed in all three Synoptic Gospels which proclaim blasphemy against the Holy Spirit as the unforgivable sin.[5] The Holy Spirit plays a key role in the Pauline epistles.[6] In the Johannine writings, three separate terms, "Holy Spirit", "Spirit of Truth", and "Paraclete" are used.[7] The Greek word pneuma, generally translated spirit, is found around 385 times in the New Testament, with some scholars differing by three to nine occurrences.[15] Pneuma appears 105 times in the four canonical gospels, 69 times in the Acts of the Apostles, 161 times in the Pauline epistles, and 50 times elsewhere.[15] These usages vary, e.g. in 133 cases it refers to spirit in the general sense, 153 cases to spiritual, and possibly 93 times in reference to the Holy Spirit.[15] In a few cases it is also used to mean wind or life.[15] Stained glass representation of the Holy Spirit as a dove, c. 1660.

God the Son In these teachings, God the Son pre-existed before incarnation, is co-eternal with God the Father (and the Holy Spirit), both before Creation and after the End (see Eschatology). Son of God for some draws attention to his humanity, whereas God the Son refers more generally to his divinity, including his pre-incarnate existence. Source of the term[edit] The term in English follows Greek and Latin usage as found in the Athanasian Creed and other texts of the early church: In Greek "God the Son" is Theos o Iios, Θεός ὁ υἱός (as distinct from o Iios nominative tu Theu genitive, ὁ υἱός του Θεού, "Son of God").In Latin "God the Son" is Deus (nominative) Filius (nominative) as in "Omnipotens Deus Pater est, Omnipotens Deus Filius, Omnipotens Spiritus Sanctus" (and as distinct from filius Dei genitive "son of God"). The distinction holds true in other modern languages apart from English, for example: Use of the term[edit] The Augsburg Confession (1530) adopted the phrase as Gott der Sohn.[5]

Annunciation Approximating the northern vernal equinox, the date of the Annunciation also marked the New Year in many places, including England, where it is called Lady Day. Both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches hold that the Annunciation took place at Nazareth, but differ as to the precise location. The Basilica of the Annunciation marks the site preferred by the former, while the Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation marks that preferred by the latter. The Annunciation has been a key topic in Christian art in general, as well as in Marian art in the Catholic Church, particularly during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Biblical account[edit] In the Bible, the Annunciation is narrated in the book of Luke, Luke 1:26-38: A separate annunciation, which is more brief but in the same vein as the one in Luke, is given to Joseph in Matthew 1:18-21: Eastern traditions[edit] In Eastern Christianity Mary is referred to as Theotokos (Θεοτόκος="God-bearer"). St. Feast day[edit] 45Behold!

Pre-existence of Christ This subject is to be distinguished from pre-existence of the soul. God resting after creation - Christ depicted as the creator of the world, Byzantine mosaic in Monreale, Sicily. Depictions of God the Father became prevalent only by the 15th century, and Jesus was often shown as a substitute before then.[1] Trinitarian belief in the doctrine[edit] In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. This "Word" is also called God the Son or the Second Person of the Trinity. Douglas McCready, in his analysis and defence of the pre-existence of Christ,[6] notes that whereas the preexistence of Christ "is taken for granted by most orthodox Christians, and has been since New Testament times",[7] during the past century the doctrine has been increasingly questioned by less orthodox theologians and scholars.[7] James D.G. Apart from John 1:1-18 and other New Testament passages, some Trinitarian groups[who?] Personal Pre-existence[edit] Oneness Pentecostals[edit] 2.

Archangel An archangel /ˌɑrkˈeɪndʒəl/ is an angel of high rank. Beings similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions; but the word "archangel" itself is usually associated with the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Some branches of the faiths mentioned have identified a group of seven Archangels, but the actual angels vary, depending on the source. Raphael, Gabriel, and Michael are always mentioned; the other archangels vary, but most commonly include Uriel as well, who is mentioned in the book 2 Esdras. In Judaism[edit] There are no explicit references to archangels in the canonical texts of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). In Christianity[edit] Guido Reni's Archangel Michael Trampling Satan, 1636. Roman Catholic[edit] In Roman Catholicism, three are honoured by name: GabrielMichaelRaphael Eastern and Oriental Orthodox[edit] Herodion of Patras and Archangel Selaphiel Protestant[edit] Jehovah's Witnesses[edit] Latter Day Saints[edit]