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Theories of Learning

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Find Internet resources that help new teachers understand how learning theories impact teaching.

How does learning occur?
What do each of the theories have in common? How do they differ?
What are the implications for the teaching and learning process?


How does technology play a role? AAAS - Project 2061 - Math, Science, Technology and 'Habits of Mind' By Evelyn Porreca Vuko Special to The Washington Post Tuesday, September 29, 1998; Page D04 Newton’s in the kitchen putting crayons in the blender. He’s inventing a new color. Success, he believes, hinges on adding just the right amount of bright red oil-based house paint. Teacher Says: Help Newton and other elementary-age kids develop a scientific habit of mind. "You don’t have to be a rocket scientist to think like one," says research astronomer and former astronaut George "Pinky" Nelson.

The first step is to dump some old attitudes and habits, such as thinking math and science are so hard or that you can only do well if you have a certain "aptitude. " "In fact, physics can be fun," he says. Gerry Wheeler says we need to stop the name-calling. Then, bite back the pat answers in favor of asking the right questions. A scientific habit of mind is further stimulated by inviting theories. He suggests a game called, "What’s Out of Place? " It also launches self-esteem to a higher orbit. The Model>Principles of Learning: Summary. The latest gains in the field of brain research cast a new light upon the learning process, which impacts curriculum design, teacher preparation, and classroom practices (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999). The model we have developed to illustrate the Principles of Learning, which we consider to have a significant influence upon knowledge acquisition, skill enhancement and competence development when applied to both classroom settings and communities, has evolved from developments in the study of learning.

Knowing how humans learn has helped us design the model we propose, which demonstrates the practical applications of research into educational settings. A variety of research approaches and techniques have been developed that seek to alter the old conceptions about learning and focus on learning with understanding. First and foremost, the student is Actively Involved and participates in his or her instruction. MI Intro. ONE OF THE MOST COMPELLING, yet controversial new approaches to education reform is Multiple Intelligences Theory, or MI. Conceived of by Howard Gardner of the Harvard Graduate School of Education and Harvard Project Zero, MI first swept the worlds of education, cognitive science and developmental psychology in 1983 with the publication of Gardner's treatise, Frames of Mind. In the decade since Frames, the work of Dr. Gardner and MI theory has shaken educators with a most fundamental question: What is intelligence?

What is the the traditional view of intelligence? How has this view impacted schools historically? I'd like to examine other reform styles. EdWeb: Exploring Technology and School Reform, by Andy Carvin. Brain-Based Learning. Technology and Multiple Intelligences. What are the multiple intelligences? What do they have to do with technology? How can I incorporate these ideas into teaching and learning? In his 1983 book called Frames of Mind, Howard Gardner of Harvard University identified seven intelligences we all possess. Because our understanding of the brain and human behavior is constantly changing, the number of intelligences is expanding.

Read Concept to Classroom: Multiple Intelligences.This web project answers a series of common questions about Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences. Go to Project Zero to learn more about Howard Gardner's projects at Harvard. Originally, Gardner developed the list as a theoretical model about the psychology of the mind, rather than a practical way to address individual differences. Read The Key Learning Community: Cultivating "Multiple Intelligences" from Edutopia. Currently, Howard Gardner has identified nine intelligences. Multiple Intelligence Technology and Multiple Intelligences. Gardner's Multiple Intelligences.

Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified seven distinct intelligences. This theory has emerged from recent cognitive research and "documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways," according to Gardner (1991). According to this theory, "we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains.

" Meridian Article: Authentic Learning: A Practical Introduction & Guide for Implementation. Learning Styles - Learning skills from MindTools.com. Understanding Learning Preferences Identifying your preferred style of learning can make gaining new knowledge and skills easier. Have you ever tried to learn something fairly simple, yet failed to grasp the key ideas? Or tried to teach people and found that some were overwhelmed or confused by something quite basic? If so, you may have experienced a clash of learning styles: your learning preferences and those of your instructor or audience may not have been aligned.

When this occurs, not only is it frustrating for everyone, the communication process breaks down and learning fails. Once you know your own natural learning preference, you can work on expanding the way you learn, so that you can learn in other ways, not just in your preferred style. And, by understanding learning styles, you can learn to create an environment in which everyone can learn from you, not just those who use your preferred style. The Index of Learning Styles™ You can see these in figure 1, below. Balance is key. Tip: Habits of Mind International | Habits of Mind | Parents as Partners.

The Center for Effective Learning - Susan Kovalik & Associates, Inc. - Educational Professionals. MultimediaLearningEmpericalResults. HabitsOfMind. Constructivist Theory. A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.

The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given". As far as instruction is concerned, the instructor should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves. The instructor and student should engage in an active dialog (i.e., socratic learning). The task of the instructor is to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner's current state of understanding. Application Bruner's constructivist theory is a general framework for instruction based upon the study of cognition. Example This example is taken from Bruner (1973):

Constructivist Teaching and Learning Models. Constructivism is an approach to teaching and learning based on the premise that cognition (learning) is the result of "mental construction. " In other words, students learn by fitting new information together with what they already know. Constructivists believe that learning is affected by the context in which an idea is taught as well as by students' beliefs and attitudes. Constructivist teaching is based on recent research about the human brain and what is known about how learning occurs.

Caine and Caine (1991) suggest that brain-compatible teaching is based on 12 principles: "The brain is a parallel processor" (p. 80). References info@ncrel.org Copyright © North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Constructivist Learning Design Paper. Teachers and teacher educators make different meanings of constructivist learning theory. At a recent retreat with facilitators of learning communities for teachers who were studying in a Masters of Education program, we were talking about our common reading of The Case for Constructivist Classrooms (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). We asked the ten facilitators to answer this question, "What is constructivism? " The results were interesting because all of their definitions were quite different and reflected their own understanding of the term and the text. This was a clear demonstration that what we read does not produce a single meaning but that understanding is constructed by the readers who bring prior knowledge and experience to the text and make their own meaning as they interact with the author's words.

The following interpretation of constructivist learning reflects our understanding of and beliefs about constructivism. 1. 2. A. B. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ausubel, D. (1978). Bloom, Benjamin. SEDL - SCIMAST Classroom Compass - Constructing Knowledge in the Classroom. Brain Connection » Powered by Posit Science - Your Brain Health Headquarters. Learning%20Theories%20and%20Information%20Literacy. Learner-Centered Teaching: Postsecondary Strategies That Promote "Thinking Like A Professional" Find using OpenURL Learner-Centered Teaching: Postsecondary Strategies That Promote "Thinking Like A Professional" Abstract The Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (LCPs) provide a holistic framework that integrates social constructivist and cognitive theories, as well as motivational and individual differences theories. We have used these to better align our own classroom practice with the rapidly expanding knowledge about how learning occurs.

In an active and collaborative learning environment, we have used specific instructional techniques, identifying similarities and differences strategies, to enhance students' thinking and learning skills. Incorrect username or password. Please select your institution to authenticate with Shibboleth. Teacher vs Learner centered instruction. Learner-centered teaching. Robert Glaser, Cognitive Psychologist and Expert on Student Testing, Dies at 91. The cause was complications of Alzheimer’s disease, said a spokesman for the Learning Research and Development Center, which Dr. Glaser helped found in 1963. Dr. Glaser was probably best known for promoting a kind of standardized test that became the norm for the federal government’s National Assessment of Educational Progress, the state-by-state evaluation commonly known as The Nation’s Report Card.

The method, which he did not invent but championed, and coined as “criterion-referenced testing,” measured not just what students knew but how well they were learning. Rather than measuring students in comparison with one another, as I.Q. and other traditional standardized tests do, “criterion” tests were mainly designed to compare students’ results with their own previous test results. While not obviously different from traditional tests like the SATs — which the Report Card used at first — Dr. Dr. Diane Ravitch, a policy analyst and historian of education who quoted Dr.

Dr. Dr. But Dr. Glaser educational theory. Situated Learning. Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated). This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is abstract and out of context. Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning -- learners become involved in a "community of practice" which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired.

As the beginner or newcomer moves from the periphery of this community to its center, they become more active and engaged within the culture and hence assume the role of expert or old-timer. Furthermore, situated learning is usually unintentional rather than deliberate. These ideas are what Lave & Wenger (1991) call the process of "legitimate peripheral participation. " Other researchers have further developed the theory of situated learning. Situated learning has antecedents in the work of Gibson (theory of affordances) and Vygotsky (social learning). Motivation theories psychology. Dan Pink: The puzzle of motivation.

Motivation. Motivation to Learn: An Overview Citation: Huitt, W. (2011). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from Return to: | EdPsyc Interactive: Courses | Home | Translations: Russian Ukrainian | Definition The following definitions of motivation were gleaned from a variety of psychology textbooks and reflect the general consensus that motivation is an internal state or condition (sometimes described as a need, desire, or want) that serves to activate or energize behavior and give it direction (see Kleinginna and Kleinginna, 1981a). internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives it direction; desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior; influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior.

Franken (2006) provides an additional component in his definition: Importance of motivation Behavioral Cognitive. School Library Research (SLR) School Library Research (ISSN: 2165-1019) is the scholarly refereed research journal of the American Association of School Librarians. It is the successor to School Library Media Research (ISSN: 1523-4320) and School Library Media Quarterly Online.

The purpose of School Library Research is to promote and publish high quality original research concerning the management, implementation, and evaluation of school library programs. The journal will also emphasize research on instructional theory, teaching methods, and critical issues relevant to school libraries and school librarians. SLR seeks to distribute major research findings worldwide through both electronic publication and linkages to substantive documents on the Internet. The primary audience for SLR includes academic scholars, school librarians, instructional specialists and other educators who strive to provide a constructive learning environment for all students and teachers. Two New Research Papers PublishedFebruary 2017.

Joseph D. Novak. Senior Research Scientist Completing graduate studies at the University of Minnesota in 1958, Dr. Novak taught biology at Kansas State Teachers College at Emporia, 1957-59, and biology and teacher education courses at Purdue University, 1959-67. From 1967 to 1995, he was Professor of Education and Biological sciences at Cornell University where his research focused on human learning, educational studies and knowledge creation and representation.

He has developed a theory of education to guide research and instruction, first published in 1977 and updated in 1998 and 2010. He is currently Professor Emeritus, Cornell University, and Senior Research Scientist at IHMC. He is author or coauthor of 29 books and more than 140 book chapters and papers in professional books and journals. Dr. E-mail Recent Publications Books Moon, B.M., Hoffman, R.R., Novak, J.D. & Cañas, J.J. (2011). Novak, J.D. (2010). Cañas, A.J., Novak, J.D. & González, F.M. González, F.M., Moron, C., & Novak, J.D. (2001). Papers. The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them. Amazon. Making Concept Maps (Novak) Interactive Workshop -- Looking at Learning ... Again. A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: B.F. Skinner. B.F. Skinner Foundation - Better Behavioral Science for a More Humane World. John B. Watson (American psychologist) -- Encyclopedia Britannica.

John Watson - Little Albert. A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: John Watson. What Is Behaviorism? How It Works and How It Influenced Psychology. A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: Ivan Pavlov. Ivan Pavlov. Thorndike-edward-1. Connectionism. Thorndike's Puzzle Box | in Chapter 08: Animals | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey. Edward L. Thorndike (American psychologist) -- Encyclopedia Britannica. Human Intelligence: biographical profiles, current controversies, resources for teachers. Pew Research Center's Internet and American Life Project. Reading Online. Welcome to the American Sports Institute. Reading Online. Motivational theory research. McClelland's Human Motivation Theory - Team Management Training From MindTools.com. Motivational theory research.

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY of Albert Bandura, Chapter 31. Social Learning Theory. Social learning theory. Learning theory. Interactive Techniques.doc. Teaching-for-meaningful-learning.pdf. Making Thinking Visible. Project-Based Learning Professional Development Guide. Building a Bridge to Knowledge for Every Child: How It Could Work. How can research on the brain inform education? Brain-Based Research Prompts Innovative Teaching Techniques in the Classroom. Great Performances . Educational Resources . Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory . Overview. Can Technology Exploit the Many Ways of Knowing by Howard Gardner.

Learning Theories.