Artificial OR artificielle intelligence. Anonymous - The Singularity Project 2013 - (Project Mayhem Has Begun) Aiimg3.jpg (Image JPEG, 465x525 pixels) Expert system. An expert system is divided into two sub-systems: the inference engine and the knowledge base.
The knowledge base represents facts and rules. The inference engine applies the rules to the known facts to deduce new facts. Inference engines can also include explanation and debugging capabilities. History Edward Feigenbaum in a 1977 paper said that the key insight of early expert systems was that "intelligent systems derive their power from the knowledge they possess rather than from the specific formalisms and inference schemes they use" (as paraphrased by Hayes-Roth, et al.) Expert systems were introduced by the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project led by Feigenbaum, who is sometimes referred to as the "father of expert systems". In addition to Feigenbaum key early contributors were Bruce Buchanan, Edward Shortliffe, Randall Davis, William vanMelle, and Carli Scott. In the 1980s, expert systems proliferated. Software architecture R1: Man(x) => Mortal(x) Truth Maintenance.
Système expert. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
D'une manière générale, un système expert est un outil capable de reproduire les mécanismes cognitifs d'un expert, dans un domaine particulier. Il s'agit de l'une des voies tentant d'aboutir à l'intelligence artificielle. Artificial intelligence. AI research is highly technical and specialized, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers.
AI research is also divided by several technical issues. Intelligence artificielle. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
Définition[modifier | modifier le code] Philosophy of artificial intelligence. The philosophy of artificial intelligence attempts to answer such questions as: Can a machine act intelligently?
Can it solve any problem that a person would solve by thinking? Are human intelligence and machine intelligence the same? Is the human brain essentially a computer? Can a machine have a mind, mental states and consciousness in the same sense humans do? These three questions reflect the divergent interests of AI researchers, cognitive scientists and philosophers respectively. Outline of artificial intelligence. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence (AI) – branch of computer science that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines. Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Inference engine. An Inference Engine is a tool from Artificial Intelligence.
The first inference engines were components of expert systems. The typical expert system consisted of a knowledge base and an inference engine. Moteur d'inférence. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
Un moteur d'inférence (du verbe « inférer » qui signifie « déduire ») est un logiciel correspondant à un algorithme de simulation des raisonnements déductifs. Un moteur d'inférence permet aux systèmes experts de conduire des raisonnements logiques et de dériver des conclusions à partir d'une base de faits et d'une base de connaissances. Les moteurs d'inférences peuvent implémenter : Base de connaissance. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
Une base de connaissance regroupe des connaissances spécifiques à un domaine spécialisé donné, sous une forme exploitable par un ordinateur. Knowledge representation and reasoning. Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) devoted to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.
Knowledge representation incorporates findings from psychology about how humans solve problems and represent knowledge in order to design formalisms that will make complex systems easier to design and build. Knowledge representation and reasoning also incorporates findings from logic to automate various kinds of reasoning, such as the application of rules or the relations of sets and subsets. What is a Knowledge Representation? Randall Davis MIT AI Lab Howard Shrobe MIT AI Lab and Symbolics, Inc.
Peter Szolovits MIT Lab for Computer Science This paper appeared as R. Davis, H. Shrobe, and P. Abstract Although knowledge representation is one of the central and in some ways most familiar concepts in AI, the most fundamental question about it--What is it? IntroductionTerminology and PerspectiveWhat is a Knowledge Representation? Introduction What is a knowledge representation? A knowledge representation (KR) is most fundamentally a surrogate, a substitute for the thing itself, used to enable an entity to determine consequences by thinking rather than acting, i.e., by reasoning about the world rather than taking action in it.
Understanding the roles and acknowledging their diversity has several useful consequences. History of artificial intelligence. The history of artificial intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods. " The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain.
The field of AI research was founded at a conference on the campus of Dartmouth College in the summer of 1956. Those who attended would become the leaders of AI research for decades. Precursors AI in myth, fiction and speculation Automatons Timeline of artificial intelligence. Topic:Artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence Part of the School of Computer Science Four approaches summarize past attempts to define the field: The study of systems that think like humans.The study of systems that think rationally.The study of systems that act like humans.The study of systems that act rationally.
Of these approaches, the former two are considered to be "white-box" approaches because they require our analysis of intelligence to be based on the rationale for the behaviour rather than the behaviour itself. The latter two are considered "black-box" approaches because they operationalize intelligence by measuring performance over a task domain. Although the third approach, (known as cognitive modelling), is of great importance to cognitive scientists, we concern ourselves with the fourth approach. This approach motivates us to provide a model for our intelligent systems known as the intelligent agent. Learning projects See: Learning Projects and the Wikiversity:Learning model. People WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE? Artificial Intelligence Books. Active Contours: The Application of Techniques from Graphics, Vision, Control Theory and Statistics to Visual Tracking of Shapes in Motion by Andrew Blake, Michael Isard, 2000 Advances in Robotics, Automation and Controlby Jesus Aramburo, Antonio R.
Trevino, 2008, 472 pages, 29MB, ZIP/PDF Advances in Service Roboticsby Ho Seok Ahn, 2008, 342 pages, 57MB, ZIP/PDF. Artificial intelligence. "A.I. " redirects here. For the Steven Spielberg film see A.I. Artificial Intelligence. Toyota Partner Robot: The walking type playing the trumpet. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.
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