What is A.I ?...

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artificial OR artificielle intelligence
Anonymous - The Singularity Project 2013 - (Project Mayhem Has Begun)
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An expert system is divided into two sub-systems: the inference engine and the knowledge base. The knowledge base represents facts and rules. The inference engine applies the rules to the known facts to deduce new facts. Inference engines can also include explanation and debugging capabilities.[10] History[edit] Expert system Expert system
Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. D'une manière générale, un système expert est un outil capable de reproduire les mécanismes cognitifs d'un expert, dans un domaine particulier. Il s'agit de l'une des voies tentant d'aboutir à l'intelligence artificielle. Système expert Système expert
Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence

AI research is highly technical and specialised, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other.[5] Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution of specific problems.
Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'intelligence artificielle est la « recherche de moyens susceptibles de doter les systèmes informatiques de capacités intellectuelles comparables à celles des êtres humains »[1]. Définition[modifier | modifier le code] Le terme « intelligence artificielle », créé par John McCarthy, est souvent abrégé par le sigle « IA » (ou « AI » en anglais, pour Artificial Intelligence). Il est défini par l’un de ses créateurs, Marvin Lee Minsky, comme « la construction de programmes informatiques qui s’adonnent à des tâches qui sont, pour l’instant, accomplies de façon plus satisfaisante par des êtres humains car elles demandent des processus mentaux de haut niveau tels que : l’apprentissage perceptuel, l’organisation de la mémoire et le raisonnement critique »[2],[3].

Intelligence artificielle

Intelligence artificielle
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence (AI) – branch of computer science that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines. Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Outline of artificial intelligence Outline of artificial intelligence
Inference engine Inference engine An Inference Engine is a tool from Artificial Intelligence. The first inference engines were components of expert systems. The typical expert system consisted of a knowledge base and an inference engine.
Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Un moteur d'inférence (du verbe « inférer » qui signifie « déduire ») est un logiciel correspondant à un algorithme de simulation des raisonnements déductifs. Un moteur d'inférence permet aux systèmes experts de conduire des raisonnements logiques et de dériver des conclusions à partir d'une base de faits et d'une base de connaissances. Les moteurs d'inférences peuvent implémenter : une logique formelle d'ordre 0 (logique des propositions), d'ordre 0+, d'ordre 1 (logique des prédicats) ou d'ordre 2 avecune gestion d'hypothèses monotone ou non monotone,un chaînage avant, chaînage arrière ou mixte,une complétude déductive ou non. Moteur d'inférence Moteur d'inférence
Base de connaissance Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Une base de connaissance regroupe des connaissances spécifiques à un domaine spécialisé donné, sous une forme exploitable par un ordinateur. Elle peut contenir des règles (dans ce cas, on parle de base de règles), des faits ou d'autres représentations[1]. Si elle contient des règles, un moteur d'inférence - simulant les raisonnements déductifs logiques - peut être utilisé pour déduire de nouveaux faits. Une base de connaissance sert à rassembler - de manière centralisée - l'expertise d'un domaine généralement formalisée de manière déclarative. A ne pas confondre avec : Base de connaissance

Knowledge representation and reasoning

Knowledge representation and reasoning Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) devoted to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language. Knowledge representation incorporates findings from psychology about how humans solve problems and represent knowledge in order to design formalisms that will make complex systems easier to design and build. Knowledge representation and reasoning also incorporates findings from logic to automate various kinds of reasoning, such as the application of rules or the relations of sets and subsets.
Randall Davis MIT AI Lab Howard Shrobe MIT AI Lab and Symbolics, Inc. Peter Szolovits MIT Lab for Computer Science This paper appeared as R. Davis, H. What is a Knowledge Representation? What is a Knowledge Representation?
History of artificial intelligence The history of artificial intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods." The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain. The field of AI research was founded at a conference on the campus of Dartmouth College in the summer of 1956. Those who attended would become the leaders of AI research for decades.
Timeline of artificial intelligence
Topic:Artificial intelligence Artificial Intelligence Part of the School of Computer Science Four approaches summarize past attempts to define the field: The study of systems that think like humans.The study of systems that think rationally.The study of systems that act like humans.The study of systems that act rationally. Of these approaches, the former two are considered to be "white-box" approaches because they require our analysis of intelligence to be based on the rationale for the behaviour rather than the behaviour itself.
Portal:Artificial intelligence
Welcome to the Wikibook about Artificial Intelligence. The following is a first proposal for a basic layout. This is not yet complete, ideas are welcome. Artificial Intelligence
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