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Relatively Interesting 24 Logical Fallacies You Should Understand and Avoid - Relatively Interesting. A logical fallacy is a error in reasoning due to a misconception or presumption, which makes the argument invalid.

Relatively Interesting 24 Logical Fallacies You Should Understand and Avoid - Relatively Interesting

If, for example, the assumptions of an argument are true, the argument can still be rendered invalid if the logic used to achieve the conclusion are not valid. That is, if the logic is “fallacious”. A collection of bad arguments are called “logical fallacies”. Our brains tend to take shortcuts when solving problems – called “heuristics”. List of fallacies. These are commonly used styles of argument in convincing people, where the focus is on communication and results rather than the correctness of the logic, and may be used whether the point being advanced is correct or not.

List of fallacies

Formal fallacies[edit] Appeal to probability – is a statement that takes something for granted because it would probably be the case (or might be the case).[2][3]Argument from fallacy – also known as fallacy fallacy, assumes that if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious, then the conclusion is false.Base rate fallacy – making a probability judgment based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities.[5]Conjunction fallacy – assumption that an outcome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying a single one of them.[6]Masked-man fallacy (illicit substitution of identicals) – the substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one.

Notes Works. How You Can Outsmart Your Own Stupidity. Opposites do best in negotiations. The study shows that opposites – a tough, individualistic negotiator versus a soft, cooperative negotiator – engage more in problem-solving than like-minded negotiators do, whether they are motived for their own gain or for cooperation.

Opposites do best in negotiations

(Photo: Microstock) Negotiations play a key role both in our private life and at work. Most people want the best possible outcome, whether they are thinking of wage negotiations, negotiations on buying or selling goods and services, negotiations for a business agreement or whatever else they might be negotiating. People can enter negotiations with various motives. Two examples: Individualistic motive: Some negotiators focus solely on their own interests and will do everything in their power to secure the best possible outcome for themselves. Rand on Causation and Free Will. This is a slightly modified version of a post I made to an online discussion group.

Rand on Causation and Free Will

Ayn Rand's views on causation contradict her views on free will. The reason is very simple: her views on causation are those of a determinist; her views on free will, however, make her a libertarian (as we will see below). And those two positions are, by definition, incompatible. But there is another serious mistake in Rand's theory of causation, one that is even worse because it is more fundamental. Before proceeding, it might be a good idea to define the terms "determinism" and "libertarianism". Two Takes On 'New Age' Introduction.

Two Takes On 'New Age'

Open Questions and the Reality of ESP. It’s an obvious question, but one not often asked, how does parapsychological research offend the evolutionist or materialist mindset?

Open Questions and the Reality of ESP

Open Prediction: How Sports Fans Can Help Save The World. Alex Lightman March 12, 2010 You know it’s summer when newsstands across America have an explosion of magazines, typically meant to have shelf-life until fall, on the topic of do-it-yourself prediction.

Open Prediction: How Sports Fans Can Help Save The World

Over a dozen publications are offered to players of Fantasy Football, itself a $5 billion a year business, to help them create and manage teams that use statistics generated by actual games to determine who wins the fantasy games. How Nazis turn youths into extremists. 'Lunikoff' is a right-wing extremist band which spreads its political message on Youtube and other social media.

How Nazis turn youths into extremists

The band is part of the German far right’s new media strategy, which aims to create small communities around various kinds of music online. The music contains a right-wing extremist message, which aims to influence young music fans. The Cocksure Versus the Intelligent. Yesterday, nearly two thousand people “liked” this quote posted by Big Think on Facebook: Several subscribers appreciated the irony in Russell’s quip.

The Cocksure Versus the Intelligent

Here are two: Below, I’ll return to the irony Thomas, Nancy and a few other Big Think Facebook perusers noticed — by the way, Bertrand Russell doesn’t look particularly unsure of himself in the photo, does he? — and in my next Praxis post I’ll outline a way forward for intelligent people who want to gain more confidence and coherence in their moral and political views without lapsing into dogmatism or posing with a pipe in hand. Today I want to examine the two propositions embedded in the quotation by Russell, the British father of analytic philosophy who died in 1970. A famous variation on Russell’s theme appears in William Butler Yeats’ “The Second Coming,” written in the wake of World War I: The True Superhumans Are Already Among Us. We used to think of “superhumans” as comic book heroes possessing extraordinary, even divine-like powers.

The True Superhumans Are Already Among Us

Now, we are realizing that the true superhumans are already among us – they are the extraordinary Paralympians who are actively embracing technology as a way to transform their “disabilities” into “super-abilities.” To emphasize this point, the promotional video for UK Channel 4's coverage of the 2012 Paralympic Games in London is called “Meet the Superhumans.” Experimental Philosopher to Clone Obama, Lady Gaga, and Other Celebrities. What if you could replicate President Obama's famous cool, Lady Gaga's style and Michael Phelps's athleticism? An experimental philosopher is attempting to do just that. Sort of. Jonathan Keats, a "poet of ideas" whose exploits include opening a photosynthetic restaurant for plants and a celestial observatory for cyanobacteria, is now introducing "the first trouble-free human cloning technique. " Keats and other researchers will employ epigenetics to "make replication of famous people as routine as downloading movies.

" Celebrities such as President Obama, Lady Gaga, Michael Phelps, Oprah Winfrey and Jennifer Lopez will all be cloned, but none of them will be present at The Epigenetic Cloning Laboratory between September 13th and October 27th at the AC Institute, a nonprofit arts organization located at 547 W. 27th St., 2nd Floor, in New York City. In the Shadow of Hegel: How Does Thought Arise Out of Matter? What's the Big Idea? Before neuroscience and quantum physics, there was Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. The 19th century German idealist revolutionized Western thought, and every great thinker since has been working in his shadow, says Slavoj Žižek, the Slovenian philosopher and cultural critic.