Karma. Endless knot Nepalese temple prayer wheel Karma symbols such as endless knot (above) are common cultural motifs in Asia. Endless knots symbolize interlinking of cause and effect, a Karmic cycle that continues eternally. The endless knot is visible in the center of the prayer wheel. Karma (Sanskrit: कर्म; IPA: [ˈkərmə]; Pali: kamma) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering. Karma is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in some schools of Asian religions. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - or, one's saṃsāra. Etymology Definition and meanings Karma and causality Karma and rebirth.
Divinity. Usages Divinity as a quality has two distinct usages: Divine force or power - powers or forces that are universal, or transcend human capacitiesDivinity applied to mortals - qualities of individuals who are considered to have some special access or relationship to the divine. There are three distinct usages of divinity and divine in religious discourse: Entity In monotheistic faiths, the word divinity is often used to refer to the singular God central to that faith. The terms divinity and divine — uncapitalized, and lacking the definite article — are sometimes used as to denote 'god(s) or certain other beings and entities which fall short of godhood but lie outside the human realm.
Divine force or power As previously noted, divinities are closely related to the transcendent force(s) or power(s) credited to them, so much so that in some cases the powers or forces may themselves be invoked independently. Mortals Christianity Acts 17:29 Romans 1:20 2 Peter 1:3. Hope. Hope is an optimistic attitude of mind based on an expectation of positive outcomes related to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large. As a verb, its definitions include: "expect with confidence" and "to cherish a desire with anticipation". In psychology Dr. Barbara L. Fredrickson argues that hope comes into its own when crisis looms, opening us to new creative possibilities. Frederickson argues that with great need comes an unusually wide range of ideas, as well as such positive emotions as happiness and joy, courage, and empowerment, drawn from four different areas of one’s self: from a cognitive, psychological, social, or physical perspective. Hopeful people are "like the little engine that could, [because] they keep telling themselves "I think I can, I think I can". Such positive thinking bears fruit when based on a realistic sense of optimism, not on a naive "false hope". The psychologist C.R.
D. In healthcare Background
Intuition. A phrenological mapping of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain Intuition, a phenomenon of the mind, describes the ability to acquire knowledge without inference or the use of reason. The word intuition comes from Latin verb intueri translated as consider or from late middle English word intuit to contemplate. Intuition is often interpreted with varied meaning from intuition being glimpses of greater knowledge to only a function of mind; however, processes by which and why they happen typically remain mostly unknown to the thinker, as opposed to the view of rational thinking. Intuition has been subject of discussion from ancient philosophy to modern psychology, also a topic of interest in various religions and esoteric domains, as well as a common subject of writings. and is often misunderstood and misinterpreted as instinct, truth, belief, meaning and other subjects.
Subjectivity. Consciousness. Phenomenology (psychology) The quality or nature of a given experience is often referred to by the term qualia, whose archetypical exemplar is "redness". For example, we might ask, "Is my experience of redness the same as yours? " While it is difficult to answer such a question in any concrete way, the concept of intersubjectivity is often used as a mechanism for understanding how it is that humans are able to empathise with one another's experiences, and indeed to engage in meaningful communication about them.
The phenomenological formulation of Being-in-the-World, where person and world are mutually constitutive, is central here. The philosophical psychology prevalent before the end of the 19th century relied heavily on introspection. Philosophers have long confronted the problem of "qualia".
Jump up ^ Hardy Leahy, Thomas (2001). Arthur Schopenhauer. Life Schopenhauer's birthplace house, ul. Św. Ducha (formerly Heiligegeistgasse) In 1814, Schopenhauer began his seminal work The World as Will and Representation (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung). He finished it in 1818 and published it the following year.
In Dresden in 1819, Schopenhauer fathered, with a servant, an illegitimate daughter who was born and died the same year. In 1820, Schopenhauer became a lecturer at the University of Berlin. He scheduled his lectures to coincide with those of the famous philosopher G. While in Berlin, Schopenhauer was named as a defendant in a lawsuit initiated by a woman named Caroline Marquet. She asked for damages, alleging that Schopenhauer had pushed her. In 1821, he fell in love with nineteen-year old opera singer, Caroline Richter (called Medon), and had a relationship with her for several years. Schopenhauer had a notably strained relationship with his mother Johanna Schopenhauer. Grave at Frankfurt Hauptfriedhof God Noumenon. Etymology The Greek word noumenon (νοούμενoν), plural noumena (νοούμενα), is the middle-passive present participle of νοεῖν (noein), "I think, I mean", which in turn originates from the word "nous" (from νόος, νοῦς, perception, understanding, mind).
A rough equivalent in English would be "something that is thought", or "the object of an act of thought". The concept in pre-Kantian philosophy Platonic Ideas and Forms are noumena, and phenomena are things displaying themselves to the senses. [...] that noumena and the noumenal world are objects of the highest knowledge, truths, and values is Plato's principal legacy to philosophy. —The Oxford Companion to Philosophy Kant's usage Overview According to Kant, objects of which we are sensibly cognizant are merely representations of unknown somethings—what Kant refers to as the transcendental object—as interpreted through the a priori or categories of the understanding.
Noumenon and the thing-in-itself See also Free will. Though it is a commonly held intuition that we have free will, it has been widely debated throughout history not only whether that is true, but even how to define the concept of free will. How exactly must the will be free, what exactly must the will be free from, in order for us to have free will? Historically, the constraint of dominant concern has been determinism of some variety (such as logical, nomological, or theological), so the two most prominent common positions are named incompatibilist or compatibilist for the relation they hold to exist between free will and determinism. In Western philosophy The underlying issue is: Do we have some control over our actions, and if so, what sort of control, and to what extent?
These questions predate the early Greek stoics (for example, Chrysippus), and some modern philosophers lament the lack of progress over all these millennia. Below are the classic arguments bearing upon the dilemma and its underpinnings.  Notes. — Dimensional Formulae. Autonomism (political doctrine) Autonomism is a doctrine which supports acquiring or preserving political autonomy of a nation or a region. It is not necessarily opposed to federalism, quite to the contrary. Having said that, souverainism necessarily implies autonomism, but not vice versa.
Examples of autonomist parties include Action démocratique du Québec in Canada (Quebec), New Democratic Macau Association in China (Macau), Parti progressiste martiniquais (Martinique) in France, Scottish National Party in the United Kingdom, Lega Nord in Italy (Northern Italy) and Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico in the United States (Puerto Rico). Autonomism is a policy defended by the Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ), a provincial party which aims to obtain certain federal capacities and to give the title of autonomous State to the province of Quebec.
The Autonomous Communities of Spain may demonstrate the doctrine although it is limited in its extent. Jump up ^ Muhammad Aurang Zeb Mughal (2012) 'Spain'. Deference. Politics Smolenski (2005) examines deference in colonial Pennsylvania, to see how claims to political authority were made, justified, and accepted or rejected. He focuses on the "colonial speech economy," that is, the implicit rules that determined who was allowed to address whom and under what conditions, and describes how the qualities that inspired deference changed in the province from 1691 to 1764. The Quaker elite initially established a monopoly on political leadership based on what they believed to be their inherent civic virtue grounded in their religious and social class. By 1760, this view had been discredited and replaced with the general consensus that civic virtue was an achieved, not an inherent, attribute and that it should be determined by the display of appropriate manliness and the valor of men who were willing to take up arms for the common defense of the colony.
Sociology Psychology See also References Jump up ^ John B. Cybernetics. Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems, their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Cybernetics is relevant to the study of systems, such as mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems. Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop; that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in that system in some manner (feedback) that triggers a system change, originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship. Some say this is necessary to a cybernetic perspective. System dynamics, a related field, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of simulation models (especially business systems) by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine Definitions W.
General. Cyberpunk. William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy novels are famous early cyberpunk novels. Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a future setting, noted for its focus on "high tech and low life". It features advanced technology and science, such as information technology and cybernetics, coupled with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order. Classic cyberpunk characters were marginalized, alienated loners who lived on the edge of society in generally dystopic futures where daily life was impacted by rapid technological change, an ubiquitous datasphere of computerized information, and invasive modification of the human body.
—Lawrence Person Style and ethos Primary exponents of the cyberpunk field include William Gibson, Neal Stephenson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan, Rudy Rucker, and John Shirley. Setting Shibuya, Tokyo. Of Japan's influence on the genre, William Gibson said, "Modern Japan simply was cyberpunk Protagonists Media Literature
Rationality. Determining optimality for rational behavior requires a quantifiable formulation of the problem, and making several key assumptions. When the goal or problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in how much information is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge). Collectively, the formulation and background assumptions are the model within which rationality applies. Illustrating the relativity of rationality: if one accepts a model in which benefitting oneself is optimal, then rationality is equated with behavior that is self-interested to the point of being selfish; whereas if one accepts a model in which benefiting the group is optimal, then purely selfish behavior is deemed irrational. It is thus meaningless to assert rationality without also specifying the background model assumptions describing how the problem is framed and formulated.
Theories of rationality Max Weber Psychology of reasoning Richard Brandt Quality of rationality Reality. Not to be confused with Realty. Philosophers, mathematicians, and other ancient and modern thinkers, such as Aristotle, Plato, Frege, Wittgenstein, and Russell, have made a distinction between thought corresponding to reality, coherent abstractions (thoughts of things that are imaginable but not real), and that which cannot even be rationally thought. By contrast existence is often restricted solely to that which has physical existence or has a direct basis in it in the way that thoughts do in the brain. Reality is often contrasted with what is imaginary, delusional, (only) in the mind, dreams, what is false, what is fictional, or what is abstract.
At the same time, what is abstract plays a role both in everyday life and in academic research. The truth refers to what is real, while falsity refers to what is not. Related concepts World views and theories Certain ideas from physics, philosophy, sociology, literary criticism, and other fields shape various theories of reality. Being Perception. Ignorance. Ignorance is a state of being uninformed (lack of knowledge). The word ignorant is an adjective describing a person in the state of being unaware and is often used as an insult to describe individuals who deliberately ignore or disregard important information or facts.
Ignoramus is commonly used in the UK, Ireland, and the US as a term for someone who is willfully ignorant. Ignorance is distinguished from stupidity, although both can lead to "unwise" acts. Writer Thomas Pynchon articulated about the scope and structure of one's ignorance: "Ignorance is not just a blank space on a person's mental map. It has contours and coherence, and for all I know rules of operation as well. So as a corollary to [the advice of] writing about what we know, maybe we should add getting familiar with our ignorance, and the possibilities therein for writing a good story Consequences Ignorance can stifle learning, especially if the ignorant person believes that they are not ignorant. See also
Mythology. Metaphysics. Philosophy and the Matrix - Return to the Source (Full Documentary)