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Karma. Endless knot Nepalese temple prayer wheel Karma symbols such as endless knot (above) are common cultural motifs in Asia.


Divinity. Usages[edit] Divinity as a quality has two distinct usages: Divine force or power - powers or forces that are universal, or transcend human capacitiesDivinity applied to mortals - qualities of individuals who are considered to have some special access or relationship to the divine.


There are three distinct usages of divinity and divine in religious discourse: Hope. Hope is an optimistic attitude of mind based on an expectation of positive outcomes related to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large.[1] As a verb, its definitions include: "expect with confidence" and "to cherish a desire with anticipation".[2] In psychology[edit] Dr.


Barbara L. Fredrickson argues that hope comes into its own when crisis looms, opening us to new creative possibilities.[4] Frederickson argues that with great need comes an unusually wide range of ideas, as well as such positive emotions as happiness and joy, courage, and empowerment, drawn from four different areas of one’s self: from a cognitive, psychological, social, or physical perspective.[5] Hopeful people are "like the little engine that could, [because] they keep telling themselves "I think I can, I think I can".[6] Such positive thinking bears fruit when based on a realistic sense of optimism, not on a naive "false hope".[7] The psychologist C.R.



Intuition. A phrenological mapping[1] of the brain – phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain Intuition, a phenomenon of the mind, describes the ability to acquire knowledge without inference or the use of reason.[2] The word intuition comes from Latin verb intueri translated as consider or from late middle English word intuit to contemplate.[3] Intuition is often interpreted with varied meaning from intuition being glimpses of greater knowledge[4] to only a function of mind; however, processes by which and why they happen typically remain mostly unknown to the thinker, as opposed to the view of rational thinking.


Divine Love

Subjectivity. Consciousness. Phenomenology (psychology) Arthur Schopenhauer. Life[edit] Schopenhauer's birthplace house, ul.

Arthur Schopenhauer

Św. Ducha (formerly Heiligegeistgasse) In 1814, Schopenhauer began his seminal work The World as Will and Representation (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung). He finished it in 1818 and published it the following year. While in Berlin, Schopenhauer was named as a defendant in a lawsuit initiated by a woman named Caroline Marquet.[18] She asked for damages, alleging that Schopenhauer had pushed her. Noumenon. Etymology[edit] The Greek word noumenon (νοούμενoν), plural noumena (νοούμενα), is the middle-passive present participle of νοεῖν (noein), "I think, I mean", which in turn originates from the word "nous" (from νόος, νοῦς, perception, understanding, mind).


A rough equivalent in English would be "something that is thought", or "the object of an act of thought". The concept in pre-Kantian philosophy[edit] Platonic Ideas and Forms are noumena, and phenomena are things displaying themselves to the senses. [...] that noumena and the noumenal world are objects of the highest knowledge, truths, and values is Plato's principal legacy to philosophy. —The Oxford Companion to Philosophy[3] Kant's usage[edit]

Free will. Though it is a commonly held intuition that we have free will,[3] it has been widely debated throughout history not only whether that is true, but even how to define the concept of free will.[4] How exactly must the will be free, what exactly must the will be free from, in order for us to have free will?

Free will

Historically, the constraint of dominant concern has been determinism of some variety (such as logical, nomological, or theological), so the two most prominent common positions are named incompatibilist or compatibilist for the relation they hold to exist between free will and determinism. In Western philosophy[edit] The underlying issue is: Do we have some control over our actions, and if so, what sort of control, and to what extent? These questions predate the early Greek stoics (for example, Chrysippus), and some modern philosophers lament the lack of progress over all these millennia.[11][12] Below are the classic arguments bearing upon the dilemma and its underpinnings. [edit] Notes. — Dimensional Formulae. Autonomism (political doctrine) Autonomism is a doctrine which supports acquiring or preserving political autonomy of a nation or a region.

Autonomism (political doctrine)

It is not necessarily opposed to federalism, quite to the contrary. Having said that, souverainism necessarily implies autonomism, but not vice versa. Examples of autonomist parties include Action démocratique du Québec in Canada (Quebec), New Democratic Macau Association in China (Macau), Parti progressiste martiniquais (Martinique) in France, Scottish National Party in the United Kingdom, Lega Nord in Italy (Northern Italy) and Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico in the United States (Puerto Rico). Autonomism is a policy defended by the Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ), a provincial party which aims to obtain certain federal capacities and to give the title of autonomous State to the province of Quebec. Deference. Politics[edit] Smolenski (2005) examines deference in colonial Pennsylvania, to see how claims to political authority were made, justified, and accepted or rejected.


He focuses on the "colonial speech economy," that is, the implicit rules that determined who was allowed to address whom and under what conditions, and describes how the qualities that inspired deference changed in the province from 1691 to 1764. The Quaker elite initially established a monopoly on political leadership based on what they believed to be their inherent civic virtue grounded in their religious and social class. By 1760, this view had been discredited and replaced with the general consensus that civic virtue was an achieved, not an inherent, attribute and that it should be determined by the display of appropriate manliness and the valor of men who were willing to take up arms for the common defense of the colony. Cybernetics. Cyberpunk.

William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy novels are famous early cyberpunk novels.


Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a future setting, noted for its focus on "high tech and low life".[1][2] It features advanced technology and science, such as information technology and cybernetics, coupled with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order.[3] Rationality. Determining optimality for rational behavior requires a quantifiable formulation of the problem, and making several key assumptions. When the goal or problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in how much information is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge).

Collectively, the formulation and background assumptions are the model within which rationality applies. Illustrating the relativity of rationality: if one accepts a model in which benefitting oneself is optimal, then rationality is equated with behavior that is self-interested to the point of being selfish; whereas if one accepts a model in which benefiting the group is optimal, then purely selfish behavior is deemed irrational. It is thus meaningless to assert rationality without also specifying the background model assumptions describing how the problem is framed and formulated.

Reality. Not to be confused with Realty. Philosophers, mathematicians, and other ancient and modern thinkers, such as Aristotle, Plato, Frege, Wittgenstein, and Russell, have made a distinction between thought corresponding to reality, coherent abstractions (thoughts of things that are imaginable but not real), and that which cannot even be rationally thought. By contrast existence is often restricted solely to that which has physical existence or has a direct basis in it in the way that thoughts do in the brain.

Ignorance. Ignorance is a state of being uninformed (lack of knowledge).[1] The word ignorant is an adjective describing a person in the state of being unaware and is often used as an insult to describe individuals who deliberately ignore or disregard important information or facts. Ignoramus is commonly used in the UK, Ireland, and the US as a term for someone who is willfully ignorant. Ignorance is distinguished from stupidity, although both can lead to "unwise" acts.

Writer Thomas Pynchon articulated about the scope and structure of one's ignorance: "Ignorance is not just a blank space on a person's mental map. Mythology. Some (recent) approaches have rejected a conflict between the value of myth and rational thought, often viewing myths, rather than being merely inaccurate historical accounts, as expressions for understanding general psychological, cultural or societal truths.

Etymology[edit] The English term mythology predates the word myth by centuries.[5] It appeared in the 15th century,[7] borrowed whole from Middle French mythologie. Metaphysics. Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,[1] although the term is not easily defined.[2] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:[3]

Philosophy and the Matrix - Return to the Source (Full Documentary)