Ami à ami. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Les réseaux d'ami à ami (friend-to-friend networks ou F2F en anglais) sont un type particulier de réseau P2P anonyme dans lequel les gens n'utilisent des connexions directes qu'avec leurs amis. Un logiciel ami à ami ne permet qu'aux personnes à qui vous faites confiance (reconnues par leur adresse IP ou leur signature numérique) d'échanger des fichiers avec votre ordinateur. Puis, les amis de vos amis (et ainsi de suite) peuvent indirectement échanger des fichiers avec votre ordinateur, sans jamais utiliser votre adresse IP (un F2F anonyme se charge de faire suivre automatiquement et anonymement les fichiers et les demandes de fichiers).
Contrairement aux autres réseaux de type P2P privé, les réseaux F2F anonymes peuvent grandir sans compromettre l'anonymat de leurs utilisateurs. Dan Bricklin a introduit le terme "ami à ami" le 11 août 2000. Utilisations du F2F[modifier | modifier le code] Ce que le F2F n'est pas[modifier | modifier le code] Decentralized computing. All computers have to be updated individually with new software, unlike a centralised computer system. Decentralised systems still enable file sharing and all computers can share peripherals such as printers and scanners as well as modems, allowing all the computers in the network to connect to the internet. A collection of decentralized computers systems are components of a larger computer network, held together by local stations of equal importance and capability.
These systems are capable of running independently of each other. Peer-to-Peer Based on a “grid model” a peer-to-peer system, or P2P system, is a collection of applications run on several local computers, which connect remotely to each other to complete a function or a task. There is no main operating system to which satellite systems are subordinate. File sharing applications See also Decentralized network 42 References WebRTC is almost here, and it will change the web. Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC) is a new HTML5 standard framework that enables the sharing of video, audio, and data directly between web browsers. These capabilities open the door to a new wave of advanced web applications. If all goes according to plan, over 50% of all web browsers will support this capability in the next three to four months. This is the most significant step forward in web browser connectivity since 2004, when Google launched Gmail and AJAX was coined.
Retroshare, WASTE, GNUnet, Freenet and OneSwarm are examples of software that can be used to build F2F networks, though RetroShare is the only one of these configured for friend-to-friend operation by default. Dan Bricklin coined the term "friend-to-friend network" in 2000. Potential applications of F2F The Bouillon project uses a friend-to-friend network to assign trust ratings to messages.The Ripple monetary system is a friend-to-friend network system for electronic money. Software F2F software without support for automatic forwarding Infinit. Hive2Hive. Four Design Principles for True P2P Networks. Excerpted from a mini-essay by Mark Pesce URL = Design Principle One: Distribute Everything The recording industry used the courts to shut down Napster because they could.
Napster had a single throat they could get their legal arms around, choking the life out of it. In a display of natural selection that would have brought a tear to Alfred Russel Wallace’s eye, the selection pressure applied by the recording industry only led to the creation of Gnutella, which, through its inherently distributed architecture, became essentially impossible to eradicate. The Day of the Darknet had begun. Break everything up. This is an extension of the essential UNIX idea of simple programs which can be piped together to do useful things. Design Principle Two: Transport Independence The inundation of Brisbane and its surrounding suburbs brought a sudden death to all of its networks: mobile, wired, optic. There is another way. Category:Commons. = What we share. Creations of both nature and society that belong to all of us equally, and should be maintained for future generations.
The Commons has the potential to replace the commodity as the determining form of re-/producing societal living conditions. Such a replacement can only occur, if communities constitute themselves for every aspect of life, in order to take „their“ commons back and to reintegrate them into a new need-focused logic of re-/production.  This new section exclusively devoted to the emergence of Commons in various fields.
Most commons fall into three general categories – gifts of nature, material creations, and intangible creations (i.e. the Three Commons. . "Our global economic system is now in grave crisis, threatening the entire planet, its institutions and species. A new kind of common wealth is needed to protect the assets of Earth, resolve our private and public debts, and create a global society of justice, sharing and sustainability for everyone. Peer-to-peer production and the coming of the commons | How can we change society?
At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or – this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms – with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure. Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy New words expressing new concepts usually indicate stirrings at other levels of reality. We are witnessing the emergence of a new ‘proto’ mode of production based on distributed, collaborative forms of organisation.
It is in achieving these economies of scope that the distributed, peer-to-peer forms of production made possible by new information and communication technologies can be deployed. The World of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) A printable version of The World of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Wikibook is available. You can use WikiType an online application which converts the Wikibooks into formatted PDF.
Peer2Politics. Social peer-to-peer processes. RetroShare. The Pirate Wheel. The Pirate Wheel is an overview of pirate policies as I’ve understood them from talking to pirates across the world. It’s not an authoritative source over any other, but merely my interpretation — which, in pirate spirit, is no more valid than anybody else’s.
A problem with old-style policymaking has always been that the political programs have been flat; they have been an unordered heap of opinions, where assemblies and other meetings occasionally reword or replace a section without regard to impact on other sections. In contrast, the Pirate Wheel focuses equally on what the policy is and why the policy is that way, starting with the fundamental change that has happened to society and deriving from there. Gamers will feel right at home with the model of a policy tree rather than a flat document; a tree where it is immediately clear which policies derive from which. The policy tree of The Pirate Wheel. Click for details. Peer-to-peer. A peer-to-peer (P2P) network in which interconnected nodes ("peers") share resources amongst each other without the use of a centralized administrative system Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between peers.
Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided. Historical development Therefore, a distributed messaging system that is often likened as an early peer-to-peer architecture was established: USENET. Applications Pair à pair. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le pair à pair peut être centralisé (les connexions passant par un serveur central intermédiaire) ou décentralisé (les connexions se faisant directement).
Il peut servir au partage de fichiers en pair à pair, au calcul distribué ou à la communication. Principe général[modifier | modifier le code] Le pair-à-pair a permis une décentralisation des systèmes, auparavant basés sur quelques serveurs exposés à la censure et à l'enregistrement en masse de données privées : il permet à tous les ordinateurs de jouer directement le rôle de client et serveur (voir client-serveur). En particulier, les systèmes de partage de fichiers permettent de rendre les objets d'autant plus disponibles qu'ils sont populaires, et donc répliqués sur un grand nombre de nœuds. L'utilisation d'un système pair-à-pair nécessite pour chaque nœud l'utilisation d'un logiciel particulier.
Le modèle pair-à-pair va bien plus loin que les applications de partage de fichiers. P2P. Why we need true p2p technologies and why citizens and geeks will have to do it, not corporations. Selected citations; you can find the sources here. * Keith Curtis: The corporations won’t do it “Given currently available technology, we should all have cars that drive us around in absolute safety, leaving us to lounge in the back and sip champagne. We have all the hardware to do this — the video cameras, motion sensors and high powered computers — and we’ve had this technology for decades. So why don’t cars drive themselves? The answer is that we don’t have the software. This software will not be “owned” by corporations like Microsoft, Apple, and Google, who are mostly impeding technological progress. . * Anil Dash: THE VALUES THAT MAKE THE SOCIAL WEB REVOLUTIONARY “1. 2. And the fundamental value which has given blogging and social media its moral grounding and its most significant impact: 3.
. * Smari McCarthy: Freedom requires infrastructure A man who has no tools to acquire his necessities of life is a slave to his necessities. . * Mayo Fuster: The ambivalence of technology. P2P File Sharing Programs - Free File Sharing Software. Millions of people use free P2P file sharing programs - software to swap music, video and other files over the Internet.
Many free P2P file sharing programs exist. Some P2P software offers a larger user base and greater numbers of files to choose from. Some software better utilizes network resources and may be easier to use. Finally, some P2P file sharing programs are increasing in popularity while others are declining. Consider all of these factors when deciding which P2P network to join. 1. As the installed base of Shareaza client users grows, it has become an increasingly better P2P file sharing program. 2. BitTorrent is a free P2P software application that has attracted a loyal following among those interested in sharing movies and television programs. 3. Ares is a full-featured free P2P network with its own file sharing programs including Ares Galaxy. 4. The BearShare P2P file sharing program is a popular free software client for the Gnutella P2P network. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. eMule 10.
Social and political movements related to the P2P (participatory), open (open access to knowledge), and ‘commons’ paradigms | P2P Foundation. Please read: Mapping a Coalition for the Commons. By Philippe Aigrain. Introduction Marco Berlinguer: “The free culture movements comprise a wide range of experiences mainly emerging around the internet and the digital revolution. All these movements emerged as practical and cultural critiques of the aggressive attempts by corporations, aided by Northern governments, to extend intellectual property rights to knowledge, culture, information, communication and even organisms and data. Following Felix Stalder, we can group these movements into three different clusters: the Free Software Movement, focusing on software source code;the Free Culture Movement, focusing on cultural goods; andthe Access To Knowledge (A2K) movement, focusing on access to knowledge-intensive goods.”
The following are most similar in intent: The Foundation for P2P Alternatives. The Future is Peer to Peer. I want to take this opportunity to inspire you with the amazing world that is the Peer to Peer Foundation. This philosophy can empower us to initiate the transition, if we chose to embrace it. When you hear the words peer to peer your first thoughts might be illegal downloads. But this is like thinking of joyriders when someone mentions cars.
Peer to peer is a entire phenomenon, a philosophy, an emerging universe of possibilities. It has the potential to bring about the change we desperately need, and all the movements for social change need to embrace it. In a nutshell, the philosophy allows us, the people, to take back the power. Every possible area is covered, from culture to education, to economics and science. Redefining Scarcity The Peer to Peer Manifesto details how Peer to Peer is undermining traditional notions of property, acknowledging scarcity in the material world, which capitalism doesn't, and embracing abundance in the virtual world, which capitalism doesn't allow. WebP2P.org. The Peer to Peer Manifesto: The Emergence of P2P Civilization and Political Economy. P2P Economy: The next great economic age. eMule. FileDonkey: The Little Search Engine That Can...
Site Officiel d'eMule. Téléchargement, Aide, Documentation, Nouvelles, You Have Downloaded - We show what you downloaded. Trade group efforts against file sharing. The Battlespace of Online Piracy. The Freenet Project - /index. List of warez groups. Warez. Kazaa - Analyse des parasites contenus dans la version 1.7.2. Osiris - Serverless Portal System. Peer(-to-peer) review of Marxism | How can we change society? Le peer to peer: nouvelle formation sociale, nouveau model civilisationnel. Pipe.