Get flash to fully experience Pearltrees
Zeno of Citium Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage , or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions. [ 1 ] Stoics were concerned with the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom , and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called prohairesis ) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how he behaved. [ 2 ] Later Stoics, such as Seneca and Epictetus , emphasized that because "virtue is sufficient for happiness", a sage was immune to misfortune.
Naturalism commonly refers to the viewpoint that laws of nature (as opposed to supernatural ones) operate in the universe, and that nothing exists beyond the natural universe or, if it does, it does not affect the natural universe. [ 1 ] Adherents of naturalism (naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the universe is a product of these laws. [ 2 ] Philosopher Paul Kurtz argues that nature is best accounted for by reference to material principles. These principles include mass , energy , and other physical and chemical properties accepted by the scientific community .
Nihilism ( pron.: / ˈ n aɪ . ɨ l ɪ z əm / or / ˈ n iː . ɨ l ɪ z əm / ; from the Latin nihil , nothing) is the philosophical doctrine suggesting the negation of one or more putatively meaningful aspects of life . Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism , which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value . [ 1 ] Moral nihilists assert that morality does not inherently exist, and that any established moral values are abstractly contrived. Nihilism can also take epistemological or metaphysical / ontological forms, meaning respectively that, in some aspect, knowledge is not possible, or that reality does not actually exist.
Determinism is a metaphysical philosophical position stating that for everything that happens there are conditions such that, given those conditions, nothing else could happen. "There are many determinisms, depending upon what pre-conditions are considered to be determinative of an event." [ 1 ] Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse motives and considerations, some of which overlap. Some forms of determinism can be tested empirically with ideas stemming from physics and the philosophy of physics . The opposite of determinism is some kind of indeterminism (otherwise called nondeterminism ). Determinism is often contrasted with free will . [ 2 ] Determinism often is taken to mean simply causal determinism , which in physics is the idea known as cause-and-effect.
In philosophy , " the Absurd " refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any. In this context absurd does not mean "logically impossible", but rather "humanly impossible". [ 1 ] The universe and the human mind do not each separately cause the Absurd, but rather, the Absurd arises by the contradictory nature of the two existing simultaneously. Absurdism , therefore, is a philosophical school of thought stating that the efforts of humanity to find inherent meaning will ultimately fail (and hence are absurd) because the sheer amount of information as well as the vast realm of the unknown make certainty impossible.
Existentialism is a term applied to the work of a number of late 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual. [ 4 ] In existentialism, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude", or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world. [ 5 ] Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Søren Kierkegaard is generally considered to have been the first existentialist philosopher, [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] though he himself did not use the term Existentialism.
In the philosophy of science , instrumentalism is the view that a scientific theory is a useful instrument in understanding the world. A concept or theory should be evaluated by how effectively it explains and predicts phenomena, as opposed to how accurately it describes objective reality. Instrumentalism avoids the debate between anti-realism and philosophical or scientific realism . It may be better characterized as non-realism. Instrumentalism shifts the basis of evaluation away from whether or not phenomena observed actually exist, and towards an analysis of whether the results and evaluation fit with observed phenomena.
The 48 Laws of Power (2000) is the first book by American author Robert Greene . [ 1 ] The book, an international bestseller , is a practical guide for anyone who wants power, observes power, or wants to arm himself against power. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] It has sold over 1.2 million copies in the United States alone and is popular with famous rappers , entrepreneurs , celebrities , athletes and actors including 50 Cent , Jay-Z , Kanye West , Busta Rhymes , Ludacris , DJ Premier , Dov Charney , Brian Grazer , Andrew Bynum , Chris Bosh , and Will Smith . [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ edit ] Background
Jain vegetarian diet is practiced by the followers of Jain culture and philosophy. It is considered to be one of the most rigorous form of spiritually-motivated diet on the Indian subcontinent and beyond. The Jain cuisine is completely vegetarian and it also excludes onions and garlic, similar to the shojin-ryori cuisine of Japan. The strictest forms of Jain diet is practiced by the monastic ascetics, it may additionally exclude potatoes and other root vegetables. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] This food is called in Sanskrit a ' sattvic ' food, which means that it is based on the qualities of goodness, lightness and happiness.