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You see a duck or a rabbit? What do you see?

You see a duck or a rabbit?

A duck or a rabbit? This is a well known optical illusion which can be seen in two ways, either as a rabbit, or as a duck. Which one do you? The surprising origins of 'post-truth' – and how it was spawned by the liberal left. “Post-truth” has been announced as the Oxford Dictionaries’ international word of the year.

The surprising origins of 'post-truth' – and how it was spawned by the liberal left

It is widely associated with US president-elect Donald Trump’s extravagantly untruthful assertions and the working-class people who voted for him nonetheless. But responsibility for the “post-truth” era lies with the middle-class professionals who prepared the runway for its recent take-off. Those responsible include academics, journalists, “creatives” and financial traders; even the centre-left politicians who have now been hit hard by the rise of the anti-factual.

Daniel Dennett on Tools To Transform Our Thinking. Karl Popper. Sir Karl Raimund Popper CH FBA FRS[4] (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.[5][6][7] He is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century.[8][9] Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method, in favour of empirical falsification: A theory in the empirical sciences can never be proven, but it can be falsified, meaning that it can and should be scrutinized by decisive experiments.

Karl Popper

Aristotle. Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship.


Their influence extended into the Renaissance and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were not confirmed or refuted until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. Galileo Galilei. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system.[8] He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism because of the absence of an observed stellar parallax.[8] The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, which concluded that heliocentrism was "foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture.

Galileo Galilei

"[8][9][10] Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point.[8] He was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", and forced to recant. Early life and family Three of Galileo's five siblings survived infancy. Name. Isaac Newton. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (/ˈnjuːtən/;[6] 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27[1]) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

Isaac Newton

His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for the development of calculus. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.

He formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. Life Early life. Guglielmo Marconi. Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (Italian: [ɡuʎˈʎɛlmo marˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission[1] and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.

Guglielmo Marconi

Pythagoras. Pythagoras of Samos (US /pɪˈθæɡərəs/;[1] UK /paɪˈθæɡərəs/;[2] Greek: Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος Pythagóras ho Sámios "Pythagoras the Samian", or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek; c. 570 – c. 495 BC)[3][4] was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and putative founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.


He is often revered as a great mathematician and scientist and is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. Legend and obfuscation cloud his work, so it is uncertain whether he truly contributed much to mathematics or natural philosophy. Thales. The 8 Elements of The Critical Thinking Process. April 3, 2014 You ask any teacher about the skills they want their students to develop and critical thinking will be among the first cited skills.

The 8 Elements of The Critical Thinking Process

So what is critical thinking all about ? Critical thinking is a cognitive process that requires disruptive patterns of thinking, ones that question the status quo of propositions and leads to the creation of alternative lines of reasoning. A Quick Guide to 21st Century Critical Thinking Skills for Educators. Playing: Words. People - Charles Fernyhough. Charles Fernyhough appears in the following: Voices in Your Head Tuesday, September 07, 2010 By Radiolab In this podcast, Jad talks to Charles Fernyhough about the connection between thought and the voice in your head.

People - Charles Fernyhough

The hard problem. “I THINK, therefore I am.” René Descartes’ aphorism has become a cliché. But it cuts to the core of perhaps the greatest question posed to science: what is consciousness? The other phenomena described in this series of briefs—time and space, matter and energy, even life itself—look tractable. They can be measured and objectified, and thus theorised about. Consciousness, by contrast, is subjective. In reality, it is unlikely that even those who advance this proposition truly believe it, as far as their fellow humans are concerned. Moreover, consciousness is not merely a property of having a complex, active brain, for it can vanish temporarily, even while the brain is healthy and functional. A lot of brain science relies on looking at brains that are broken. David Cain. Dan Dennett: Dangerous memes. Sheena Iyengar: How to make choosing easier. Jon Haidt's Home Page.

Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi. Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (25 January 1743 – 10 March 1819) was an influential German philosopher, literary figure, socialite, and the younger brother of poet Johann Georg Jacobi. He is notable for coining the term nihilism and promoting it as the prime fault of Enlightenment thought particularly in the philosophical systems of Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, Johann Fichte and Friedrich Schelling.[1] Instead of speculative reason, he advocated Glaube (variously translated as faith or "belief") and revelation. In this sense, Jacobi anticipated present-day writers who criticize secular philosophy as relativistic and dangerous for religious faith. Le Temps Imaginaire. Frank Smith, docteur en épistémologie, est l’auteur d’une thèse intitulée : les enjeux politiques de la vulgarisation scientifique. Il analyse l’évolution des rapports entre l’expérience et la science pour ensuite envisager la vérité scientifique à la lumière des différentes lectures possibles des inégalités de Heisenberg.

Les théories scientifiques ne sont-elles que des inventions de l’esprit humain libre d’interpréter les faits à sa guise ou relèvent-elles d’une réalité objective qui serait découverte ? Dès lors, sommes-nous réduits à l’alternative qui consiste à faire de la science un argument d’autorité ou, étant donné le caractère nécessairement provisoire des théories, à leur dénier toute prétention à décrire la réalité ? Il est traditionnel d’opposer la vérité aux interprétations. Cette opposition est aussi celle de l’unicité et de la multiplicité. D’abord, la première chose que l’on peut noter est qu’il est déjà arrivé que la science se soit trompée.

William James. William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States,[2] James was one of the leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced, while others have labelled him the "Father of American psychology".[3][4][5] Along with Charles Sanders Peirce and John Dewey, he is considered to be one of the greatest figures associated with the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of the functional psychology. He also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B. Early life[edit] William James was born at the Astor House in New York City.

The divide between the unconscious and... - Michael Thomas Gerety. Pragmatic theory of truth.


God. An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments.