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Thales of Miletus (; Greek: Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs, THAY-lees or TAH-lays; c. 624/623 – c. 548/545 BC) was a Greek mathematician, astronomer and pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor. He was one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Aristotle, regarded him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition,[1][2] and he is otherwise historically recognized as the first individual in Western civilization known to have entertained and engaged in scientific philosophy.[3][4] In mathematics, Thales used geometry to calculate the heights of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. He is the first known individual to use deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' theorem. He is the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed.[6] Life[edit] Map of Phoenician (in yellow) and Greek colonies around 8th to 6th century BC. Activities[edit] Astronomy[edit] Sagacity[edit] Theories[edit]

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Peisistratos Peisistratos (Greek: Πεισίστρατος; died 528/7 BC), Latinized Pisistratus, the son of Hippocrates, was a ruler of ancient Athens during most of the period between 561 and 527 BC.[2] His legacy lies primarily in his instituting the Panathenaic Games, historically assigned the date of 566 B.C., and the consequent first attempt at producing a definitive version of the Homeric epics. Peisistratos' championing of the lower class of Athens, the Hyperakrioi, (see below) is an early example of populism. While in power, Peisistratos did not hesitate to confront the aristocracy, and he greatly reduced their privileges, confiscated their lands and gave them to the poor, and funded many religious and artistic programs.[3] Peisistratus was a one-time brother-in-law of Cleisthenes;[4] however, Peisistratus was much older. Rise[edit] Illustration from 1838 by M.

Anaximenes of Miletus Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher Anaximenes of Miletus (; Greek: Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 586 – c. 526 BC) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC.[1][2] The details of his life are obscure because none of his work has been preserved. Anaximenes' ideas and philosophies are only known today because of comments made by Aristotle and other writers on the history of Greek philosophy.[3] Apollodorus of Damascus noted the dates Anaximander was alive in relation to well-known historical events, and estimated Anaximenes' lifespan as having occurred during the same time period in which Cyrus the Great defeated Croesus at the Battle of Thymbra in 546 BC.[2] Anaximenes was the last known Milesian philosopher, as Miletus was captured by the Persian army in 494 BC.[7]

en.m.wikipedia The Choice of Hercules, by Annibale Carracci, depicting the fable recounted by Prodicus Life[edit] Prodicus was a native of Ioulis on the island of Ceos, the birthplace of Simonides,[2] whom he is described as having imitated.[3] Prodicus came frequently to Athens for the purpose of transacting business on behalf of his native city, and attracted admiration as an orator,[4] although his voice was deep and apt to fall.[5] Plutarch describes him as slender and weak;[6] and Plato also alludes to his weakness, and a degree of effeminacy which thus resulted.[7] Philostratus accuses him of luxury and avarice,[8] but no earlier source mentions this. Teachings[edit] Prodicus was part of the first generation of Sophists. "He was a Sophist in the full sense of a professional freelance educator

Pythia Priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi Nevertheless, details of how the Pythia operated are missing as authors from the classical period (6th to 4th centuries BC) treat the process as common knowledge with no need to explain. Those who discussed the oracle in any detail are from 1st century BC to 4th century AD and give conflicting stories.[5] One of the main stories claimed that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapours rising from a chasm in the rock, and that she spoke gibberish which priests interpreted as the enigmatic prophecies and turned them into poetic dactylic hexameters preserved in Greek literature.[6] This idea, however, has been challenged by scholars such as Joseph Fontenrose and Lisa Maurizio, who argue that the ancient sources uniformly represent the Pythia speaking intelligibly, and giving prophecies in her own voice.[7] Herodotus, writing in the fifth century BC describes the Pythia speaking in dactylic hexameters.[8][9] G.L. Notes[edit]

Minerva Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts, trade, and defense Minerva ( min-UR-və, Latin: [mɪˈnɛrwa]; Etruscan: Menrva) is the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena,[1] though the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks did.

www.iep.utm Prodicus was a sophist and rhetorician from Iulis on the island of Ceos. He was contemporary with Democritus and Gorgias, and was a disciple of Protagoras. He flourished in the 86th Olympiad, and it is reported that his disciples included Socrates, Euripides, Theramenes, and Isocrates. His countrymen, after giving him several public jobs, sent him as ambassador to Athens. He was so well received there that he was induced to open a school of rhetoric. In his lectures on literary style he laid stress on the right use of words and the accurate discrimination between synonyms.

Adrastus Ancient Greek mythological king of Argos Adrastus (; Ancient Greek: Ἄδραστος Adrastos) or Adrestus (Ionic: Ἄδρηστος Adrēstos), traditionally translated as 'inescapable',[1] was a legendary king of Argos during the war of the Seven Against Thebes. Family[edit] Mythology[edit] According to Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Greece by Edward E.

Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (; Greek: Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; c. 510 – c. 428 BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. Born in Clazomenae at a time when Asia Minor was under the control of the Persian Empire, Anaxagoras came to Athens. According to Diogenes Laërtius and Plutarch, in later life he was charged with impiety and went into exile in Lampsacus; the charges may have been political, owing to his association with Pericles, if they were not fabricated by later ancient biographers.[2]

prodicus Prodicus of Ceos (c. 465 - 415) was a Greek philosopher, part of the first generation of Sophists. "He was a Sophist in the full sense of a professional freelance educator." He came to Athens as ambassador from Ceos, and became known as a speaker and a teacher.

Zoroaster Zoroaster (, UK also ; Greek: Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (, UK also ; Avestan: 𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀‎ Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra (Persian: زرتشت‎), was an ancient Iranian spiritual leader who founded what is now known as Zoroastrianism. His teachings challenged the existing traditions of the Indo-Iranian religion and inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Persia. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but his exact birthplace is uncertain.[6] There is no scholarly consensus on when he lived.[8] However, approximating using linguistic and socio-cultural evidence allows for dating to somewhere in the second millennium BCE. Name and etymology[edit]

www.encyclopedia Prodicus of Ceos, the Greek Sophist, was probably born before 460 BCE and was still alive at the time of the death of Socrates in 399 BCE. He traveled widely as an ambassador for Ceos and also earned a great deal of money lecturing in various Greek cities, especially in Athens. His writings are known to have dealt with physical doctrines, with religious and moral themes, and above all with distinctions between the meanings of words usually treated as synonyms.

Solon Solon (Greek: Σόλων Sólōn [só.lɔːn]; c. 630 – c. 560 BC)[1] was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic and moral decline in archaic Athens.[2] His reforms failed in the short-term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy.[3][4][5] He wrote poetry for pleasure, as patriotic propaganda, and in defence of his constitutional reform. Life[edit] Solon was born in Athens around 630 BC.[1] His family was distinguished in Attica as they belonged to a noble or Eupatrid clan, although they possessed only moderate wealth.[8] Solon's father was probably Execestides. "Solon demands to pledge respect for his laws", book illustration (Augsburg 1832)

John Milton 17th-century English poet and civil servant John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English poet and intellectual, who served as a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost (1667), written in blank verse.