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Health inequity

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What s behind the poor life expectancy in West Central Scotland. Very useful David Walsh. #rcpePH17. Scottish ‘excess’ mortality: comparing Glasgow with Liverpool and Manchester. This research programme was established to help understand what lay behind the ‘excess’ levels of mortality (i.e. that which does not appear to be explained by socioeconomic deprivation alone) seen in Scotland and, in particular, Glasgow, compared to other parts of the UK.

Scottish ‘excess’ mortality: comparing Glasgow with Liverpool and Manchester

Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review. Abstract Background Globally, the status of women’s health falls short of its potential.

Economic Benefits of Investing in Women’s Health: A Systematic Review

In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women’s health. Use buggy covers to combat air pollution danger, parents warned. Parents should use covers on their prams during the school run to protect their infants from air pollution, experts have warned.

Use buggy covers to combat air pollution danger, parents warned

Scientists tested the pollution levels inside prams to assess the exposure of infants taken on the school run with older siblings. The researchers found that the fine particle pollution from vehicle exhausts, which is particularly harmful, was higher during the morning journey. “Young children are far more susceptible to pollution than adults, due to their immature and developing systems and lower body weight,” said Dr Prashant Kumar, at the University of Surrey and who led the new research. “These findings provide an insight for families who walk to and from nursery and primary schools with young children. Essentially, children could be at risk of breathing in some nasty and harmful chemical species.” Previous work on whether adults are exposed to less pollution than children, who are closer to the level of exhaust pipes, has produced conflicting results. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs : Research History.

A Theory of Human Motivation A.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs : Research History

H. Maslow (1943) Originally Published in Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. [p. 370] I. INTRODUCTION In a previous paper (13) various propositions were presented which would have to be included in any theory of human motivation that could lay claim to being definitive. 1. Fair society healthy lives full report. WhitehallII. (also known as the Stress and Health Study) By combining over 30 years of data on social inequalities and chronic disease with new clinical measures of cognitive function, mental disorders and physical functioning, the Whitehall II study has become a world-class, interdisciplinary study of ageing.

WhitehallII

The study has been funded by major grants from the Ageing population with care needs set to grow by 25% within a decade A new public health policy model has been developed by the Whitehall II/Liverpool University research collaboration, funded by the British Heart Foundation. The Black Report 1980. We hope that you find our page on “The Black Report” interesting.

The Black Report 1980

You might also like to read our latest blogposts on equality here. The publication of the Black Report over the Bank Holiday Weekend of 1980 by the Thatcher Government signalled the end of the hopes of improvement in public health for twenty years. It was clear that the Government would have preferred to suppress the whole thing, and it is greatly to the authors’ credit that this did not happen. However you do not need to read very much to see why the Conservatives wanted to suppress it. Redistribution, increased public expenditure and taxation and unashamed socialism are flaunted on almost every page. Whitehall Study - Wikipedia. The Whitehall Studies investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality rates among British civil servants.

Whitehall Study - Wikipedia

The initial prospective cohort study, the Whitehall I Study,[1] examined over 18,000 male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64, and was conducted over a period of ten years, beginning in 1967. A second cohort study, the Whitehall II Study,[2] was conducted from 1985 to 1988 and examined the health of 10,308 civil servants aged 35 to 55, of whom two thirds were men and one third women. Association between maternal social deprivation and prenatal care utilization: the PreCARE cohort study.

Despite the supposedly protective policies in France, we found that social deprivation is associated with inadequate PCU here.

Association between maternal social deprivation and prenatal care utilization: the PreCARE cohort study

The strength of the association and the aspects of deprivation involved varied according to women’s migration status. Inadequate PCU was also associated with recent immigration, with unplanned and unwanted pregnancy, independently of others social conditions. Theconversation. Women living in the most deprived areas are over 60% more likely to have anxiety as women living in richer areas.

theconversation

However, whether men live in poorer or richer areas seems to make very little difference to their anxiety levels, according to new research we conducted at the University of Cambridge. The disorder that we looked at in our study of over 18,000 British people was generalised anxiety disorder, which is characterised by excessive uncontrollable worry about a number of life circumstances, from work and finances to relationships and health. The worry could extend to major or minor matters, it could be about anything, and it is very difficult to control. People with generalised anxiety disorder often think that something negative will happen in the future without this belief being necessarily grounded in reality. They also suffer from symptoms such as restlessness, insomnia and irritability.

School Vouchers Aren’t Working, but Choice Is - NYTimes.com. Second, the highly charged debate over education often lapses into misleading caricature.

School Vouchers Aren’t Working, but Choice Is - NYTimes.com

On one side of the caricature are defenders of traditional public schools, who believe in generous funding, small class sizes and teacher training. On the other are so-called reformers, who believe in vouchers, charter schools and standardized tests. Unfortunately, this caricature mixes several ideas that do not necessarily go together. In particular, it conflates vouchers (coupons that let parents use their tax dollars for private schools) with charter schools (public schools that operate outside the usual bureaucracy). Hard-core reformers, like DeVos, support vouchers and charters. Vouchers have been disappointing. The gross over-confidence of politicians like Trump and Cameron might help explain inequality. In 1995 a 44-year-old man called McArthur Wheeler set out to rob two banks in Pittsburgh. In preparation for the crime he smeared his face with lemon juice.

Wheeler’s bizarre logic was that since lemon juice can be used as a kind of invisible ink on paper, the liquid would also render his face invisible to the banks’ security cameras. After the robbery police retrieved the surveillance tape and gave it to a local news channel. Wheeler was duly identified and then arrested. Antidepressants prescribed far more in deprived English coastal towns. Doctors in deprived coastal towns in the north and east of England are prescribing almost twice as many antidepressants as those in the rest of the country, analysis of prescription data shows. Blackpool, Sunderland and East Lindsey, in Skegness, fill the top three spots for the most prescriptions out of England’s 326 districts. Psychologists said the findings were consistent with links between deprivation and depression, anxiety and other mental health problems.

But they added that seaside towns faced a particular set of difficulties that could give rise to mental health issues. The trends in NHS prescription data were discovered by Exasol, a database analysis company. It found that in Blackpool, the area with the highest rate of antidepressant prescriptions, 2.11 were issued per person in 2016, compared with a national average of 1.16. Sunderland and East Lindsey were in second and third place, with about 1.99 prescriptions per person. Why Are So Many White Americans Dying? It’s a mystery with profound implications for American politics, not to mention public health: Why are so many white people dying?

When economists Anne Case and Angus Deaton released their first bombshell study in 2015, showing that mortality rates were rising for middle-aged white Americans after years of decline, the finding stunned the research world. This wasn’t a global trend—it was a distinctly American phenomenon, Case and Deaton had discovered. Among other races and age groups in Europe, mortality rates had continued to fall. But in the U.S. white people aged 45 to 54 without a college degree were dying sooner, and not from the usual suspects like heart disease and diabetes. For an advanced country where the notion of continuous progress is practically a national creed, the revelation was shocking. An equity-focused knowledge translation framework (EqKT) More specifically, the framework aims to do the following: Provide a means to critically analyze existing systems responsible for defining and delineating "how we know" about health inequities; Use reflexive practices to scrutinize one's own position and influence; and Transform one's relationship with knowledge so that opportunities for collective action on health inequities and alternative solutions can be realized.

The framework begins with the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on the Social Determinants of Health's idea of "reasonable action" to address health inequities. The framework furthers Third Wave knowledge translation, which aims to examine the socio-political antecedents of health inequalities and the conditions by which underlying social arrangements manifest as health inequalities. 'Bright but poor' pupils years behind better-off peers, study claims. “Bright but poor” children in Britain are lagging years behind their better-off peers in educational achievement, a report has found, despite producing world-leading performances in certain subjects. Poverty in the UK jeopardising children’s health, warns landmark report. Low social status 'can damage immune system' Jech-2016-207544. Achieving global health equity: what will it really take? Comparison of small-area deprivation measures as predictors of chronic disease burden in a low-income population.

We found significantly higher levels of chronic disease in high- versus low-deprivation ZCTAs, regardless of the deprivation measure used, a result that is consistent with a growing international body of literature indicating higher rates of wide-ranging adverse health outcomes in resource-poor communities [4, 5, 8, 11, 29, 30, 52]. The Divide - Official Trailer. Explicit cookie consent. What’s the Connection Between Residential Segregation and Health? Segregated Opportunities. Review: Health equity tools. Article: Global Justice and the Social Determinants of Health (Venkatapuram, 2010) Article: Public policy and the social determinants of health: the challenge of the production and use of scientific evidence (Pellegrini Filho, 2011) Article: Beyond EBM: new directions for evidence-based public health (McGuire, 2005) Article: Understanding Social Inequalities in Health (Marmot, 2003) WHO webpage: Social determinants of health. Journal article: Health in an unequal world (Marmot, 2006)

Commission on Social Determinants of Health - final report. Working paper: Global Inequality: beyond the bottom billion. Opinion: Michael Marmot on tackling the social gradient in health. A boy living in the poorest part of Westminster or Glasgow, Baltimore or Washington can expect to live 20 years fewer than a boy living in the richest part; girls fare slightly better.

But most of us do not live in the poorest part of cities and can surely take comfort that this kind of thing doesn’t apply to us. We are wrong. Video: health inequalities - social determinants of health Glasgow. Video: health inequalities - social determinants of health Copenhagen. Video: health inequalities - social determinants of health Slovenia. Professor Sir Michael Marmot in conversation with ANU academics.