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Michio Kaku. Michio Kaku (born January 24, 1947) is an American theoretical physicist, the Henry Semat Professor of Theoretical Physics at the City College of New York, a futurist, and a communicator and popularizer of science.

Michio Kaku

He has written several books about physics and related topics, has made frequent appearances on radio, television, and film, and writes extensive online blogs and articles. He has written three New York Times Best Sellers: Physics of the Impossible (2008) and Physics of the Future (2011) and the Future of the Mind. Kardashev scale. The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement, based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to utilize.

Kardashev scale

The scale has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III. A Type I civilization uses all available resources impinging on its home planet, Type II harnesses all the energy of its star, and Type III of its galaxy. The scale is only hypothetical, but it puts energy consumption in a cosmic perspective. It was first proposed in 1964 by the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev. List of rampage killers. This is a partial list of rampage killings.

List of rampage killers

It is further divided into several subsections. This list shall contain every case with at least one of the following features: Rampage killings with six or more dead (excluding the perpetrator)Rampage killings with at least four people killed and a double digit number of victims (dead plus injured)Rampage killings with at least a dozen victims (dead plus injured) In the tables that follow, the "W" column indicates the weapon, or weapons, used.

Details are listed in the Annotation section. List of serial killers before 1900. The following is a list of known serial killers, in roughly chronological order.

List of serial killers before 1900

See also[edit] References[edit] List of serial killers by number of victims. A serial killer is a person who murders two or more people, in two or more separate events over a period of time, for primarily psychological reasons.[1] There are gaps of time between the killings, which may range from a few hours to many years.

List of serial killers by number of victims

This list shows serial killers from the 20th century to present day by number of victims (list of serial killers before 1900). In many cases, the exact number of victims assigned to a serial killer is not known, and even if that person is convicted of a few, there can be the possibility that he/she killed many more. Due to the complex nature of serial killers, their crimes, discrepancies caused by geographic location and/or time, and the investigations related to these persons results in difficulties in organization and ranking.

Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. Despite its name, the gunfight actually occurred in a narrow lot six doors west of the rear entrance to the O.K.

Gunfight at the O.K. Corral

Corral on Fremont Street, and also in the street. The two opposing parties were initially only about 6 feet (1.8 m) apart. Shell game. The shell game (also known as Thimblerig, Three shells and a pea, the old army game) is portrayed as a gambling game, but in reality, when a wager for money is made, it is a confidence trick used to perpetrate fraud.

Shell game

In confidence trick slang, this swindle is referred to as a short-con because it is quick and easy to pull off. Play[edit] R'lyeh. The location of R'Lyeh given by Lovecraft was 47°9′S 126°43′W in the southern Pacific Ocean.


August Derleth placed it at 49°51′S 128°34′W. Both locations are close to the Pacific pole of inaccessibility or "Nemo" point, 48°52.6′S 123°23.6′W, a point in the ocean farthest from any land mass. The nightmare corpse-city of R'lyeh…was built in measureless eons behind history by the vast, loathsome shapes that seeped down from the dark stars. There lay great Cthulhu and his hordes, hidden in green slimy vaults.

R'lyeh is characterized by bizarre architecture likened to non-Euclidean geometry. Cintamani. Cintāmaṇi (Sanskrit; Devanagari: चिन्तामणि) also spelled as Chintamani (or the Chintamani Stone) is a wish-fulfilling jewel within both Hindu and Buddhist traditions, equivalent to the philosopher's stone (Paras Pathar) in Western alchemy.[1] In Buddhism it is held by the bodhisattvas, Avalokiteshvara and Ksitigarbha.


It is also seen carried upon the back of the Lung ta (wind horse) which is depicted on Tibetan prayer flags. By reciting the Dharani of Cintamani, Buddhist tradition maintains that one attains the Wisdom of Buddha, able to understand the truth of the Buddha, and turn afflictions into Bodhi. It is said to allow one to see the Holy Retinue of Amitabha and assembly upon one's deathbed. In Tibetan Buddhist tradition the Chintamani is sometimes depicted as a luminous pearl and is in the possession of several of different forms of the Buddha.[2] Shambhala. In Tibetan Buddhist and Indian Hindu/Buddhist traditions, Shambhala (also spelled Shambala or Shamballa; Tibetan: བདེ་འབྱུང་; Wylie: bde 'byung, pron. de-jung; Chinese: 香巴拉; pinyin: xiāngbālā) is a kingdom hidden somewhere in Inner Asia.


It is mentioned in various ancient texts, including the Kalachakra Tantra[2] and the ancient texts of the Zhang Zhung culture which predated Tibetan Buddhism in western Tibet. The Bön[3] scriptures speak of a closely related land called Olmolungring. Hindu texts such as Vishnu Purana mention Shambhala as the birth place of Kalki, the final incarnation of Vishnu who will usher in a new Golden Age (Satya Yuga).[4] Whatever its historical basis, Shambhala gradually came to be seen as a Buddhist Pure Land, a fabulous kingdom whose reality is visionary or spiritual as much as physical or geographic.

Shangri-La. Many scholars believe that Shangri-La is Shambhala, a mythical kingdom in Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which was sought by Eastern and Western explorers.[2] Etymology[edit] The phrase "Shangri-La" most probably comes from the Tibetan Standard Tibetan: ཞང་,"Shang" - a district of Ü-Tsang, north of Tashilhunpo[3]" + Standard Tibetan: རི, pronounced "ri", "Mountain" = "Shang Mountain" + Standard Tibetan: ལ, Mountain Pass, which suggests that the area is accessed to, or is named by, "Shang Mountain Pass".