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The Gum catalog is an astronomical catalog of 84 emission nebulae in the southern sky. It was made by the Australian astronomer Colin Stanley Gum (1924-1960) at Mount Stromlo Observatory using wide field photography. Gum published his findings in 1955 in a study entitled A study of diffuse southern H-alpha nebulae which presented a catalog of 84 nebulae or nebular complexes. Similar catalogs include the Sharpless catalog and the RCW catalog , and many of the Gum objects are repeated in these other catalogs.
The Landscape of Music This map of music shows relations between musicians/groups. Related musicians are closeby and in the same country. Navigate like you would with an online map.
Peter Wessel Zapffe (December 18, 1899 – October 12, 1990) was a Norwegian metaphysician , author and mountaineer . He was well known for his somewhat pessimistic view of human existence and his philosophy is considered to be an example of philosophical pessimism , [ 1 ] much like the work of the earlier philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer , by whom he was inspired. His thoughts regarding the error of human existence are presented in the essay "The Last Messiah" (original: Den sidste Messias , 1933). This essay is a shorter version of his best-known work, the philosophical treatise On the Tragic (original: Om det tragiske 1941).
The contrasting and categorisation of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections. [ edit ] Contrasting basic emotions The following table [ 1 ] identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include mental experiences that:
The term phenomenology in science is used to describe a body of knowledge that relates empirical observations of phenomena to each other, in a way that is consistent with fundamental theory , but is not directly derived from theory. For example, we find the following definition in the Concise Dictionary of Physics : Phenomenological Theory . A theory that expresses mathematically the results of observed phenomena without paying detailed attention to their fundamental significance. [ 1 ] The name is derived from phenomenon (from Greek φαινόμενoν, pl. φαινόμενα - phenomena and -λογία - -logia , translated as "study of" or "research"), which is any occurrence that is observable. [ edit ] See also
Metacognition is defined as " cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing." [ 1 ] It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. [ 1 ] There are generally two components of metacognition: knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition. [ 2 ] Metamemory , defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition. [ 3 ] Differences in metacognitive processing across cultures have not been widely studied, but could provide better outcomes in cross-cultural learning between teachers and students. [ 4 ] Some evolutionary psychologists hypothesize that metacognition is used as a survival tool, which would make metacognition the same across cultures. [ 4 ] Writings on metacognition can be traced back at least as far as De Anima and the Parva Naturalia of the Greek philosopher Aristotle . [ 5 ] [ edit ] Definitions J.
Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century. Consciousness is the quality or state of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It has been defined as: subjectivity , awareness , sentience , the ability to experience or to feel , wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood , and the executive control system of the mind. [ 3 ] Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is. [ 4 ] As Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness : "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives." [ 5 ] Philosophers since the time of Descartes and Locke have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and pin down its essential properties.
In philosophy , emergentism is the belief in emergence , particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind , and as it contrasts (or not) with reductionism . A property of a system is said to be emergent if it is in some sense more than the "sum" of the properties of the system 's parts. An emergent property is said to be dependent on some more basic properties (and their relationships and configuration), so that it can have no separate existence. However, a degree of independence is also asserted of emergent properties, so that they are not identical to, or reducible to, or predictable from, or deducible from their bases. The different ways in which the independence requirement can be satisfied lead to various sub-varieties of emergence. [ edit ] Forms of emergentism
Snowflakes forming complex symmetrical patterns is an example of emergence in a physical system. In philosophy , systems theory , science , and art , emergence is the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions. Emergence is central to the theories of integrative levels and of complex systems. [ edit ] Definitions The idea of emergence has been around since at least the time of Aristotle .