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A 2nd century 007? Archaeologists discover barracks that may have been used by ancient Rome's secret service. A Five-Minute Guide to Medieval Fabrics. By Danièle Cybulskie I don’t know about you, but I often read descriptions of medieval clothing and want to know more about the fabric: what did it look like and what was its texture? Read on for a brief overview, and part of the fantastic glossary of terms from Fashion in the Middle Ages that will give you a sense of medieval fabric and some great trivia (such as where the word “crimson” comes from). When it comes to medieval clothing, Europeans got by on five major components: leather, linen, wool, silk, and fur. Leather was used for belts and shoes, armour and heavy aprons. While linen was pretty available everywhere, the English and the Flemish boasted the best of the wool market, while the Italians supplied a large amount of the silk, most likely because of their solid trade connection with Asia (hence “The Silk Road”), as you can see if you read The Travels of Marco Polo.

Margaret Scott’s Fashion in the Middle Ages is a gorgeous book of mainly medieval illustrations from the J. 40 maps that explain the Roman Empire. By Timothy B. Lee on August 19, 2014 Two thousand years ago, on August 19, 14 AD, Caesar Augustus died. He was Rome's first emperor, having won a civil war more than 40 years earlier that transformed the dysfunctional Roman Republic into an empire. Under Augustus and his successors, the empire experienced 200 years of relative peace and prosperity. Here are 40 maps that explain the Roman Empire — its rise and fall, its culture and economy, and how it laid the foundations of the modern world.

The rise and fall of Rome The rise and fall of RomeIn 500 BC, Rome was a minor city-state on the Italian peninsula. By 200 BC, the Roman Republic had conquered Italy, and over the following two centuries it conquered Greece and Spain, the North African coast, much of the Middle East, modern-day France, and even the remote island of Britain. The rise of Rome Rome's military The republic becomes an empire The lost city of Pompeii The eruption of Mount Vesuvius The eruption of Mt. The culture of Rome. ORBIS: The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World. Collections. View the exclusive collection of items excavated at Vindolanda. An Archeological Journey People come in their thousands to Vindolanda as it is a ‘live’ archaeological site.

For the last forty five years the site has been surrendering its thousand year old secrets on a daily basis. No other Roman site in Britain is as rich in its findings. Everything on display in the museum was found from the Roman site only yards away. The Collections Objects from the deep past including textiles, leather goods, wooden objects and flora and fauna have all survived thanks to the exceptional conditions found at Vindolanda. 12 Renowned Roman Legions and How They Earned Their Names. READING ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. By Michael S. Swoveland In setting out to write this article, I have the modest goal of helping new collectors of Roman Imperial coins to interpret the inscriptions on their coins. I must state at the outset that there will be nothing new here, I travel the well marked path of the great numismatists who have gone before me. The two who have had the greatest influence on me have been David R. Sear and Zander H.

Many new collectors and even advanced students of Latin shy away from attempting to decipher the seemingly cryptic inscriptions found on most Roman coins. The ancient Romans were great lovers of titles. The following examples will demonstrate how some of the above titles appear on actual Roman coins. Vespasian AE As issued AD 74 The inscription IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS V CENS could be loosely translated "The Emperor Caesar Vespasianus, Augustus, Consul for the fifth time, Censor of the Roman people. " Trajan Decius AR Antoninianus issued AD 249-251 Constantine II AE3 issued AD 320-324.

Trajan's Column - Reading an Ancient Comic Strip. Fulltext. Massive Map Of Rome, Older Than 1,800 Years, Gets A Missing Piece. A 1,800 year old map of Rome is interesting enough as it is; but the scope is seriously impressive when it comes to the so-called Forma Urbis Romae. Also known as the Severan Marble Plan, this gargantuan map of Rome, originally made between the years 203-211 AD, measured a whopping 18.10 m x 13 m (or 60 ft x 43 ft). This incredibly expansive facade was carved into 150 marble slabs and then mounted across an entire wall inside Templum Pacis (Temple of Peace) in Rome. Furthermore preciseness complemented this massive ambit, with the 1:260 scale map representing almost all the floor plans of temples, baths, and insulae (proto-apartments) situated in the central section of the ‘eternal city’.

These were accompanied by etchings of the street names, public building landmarks and private residences – with intricate details like columns and staircases even being represented in some cases. Reconstruction of the Templum Pacis,. The missing piece. Via: DiscoveryNews. Here's what fruits and vegetables looked like before we domesticated them. Next time you bite into a slice of watermelon or a cob of corn, consider this: these familiar fruits and veggies didn't always look and taste this way. Genetically modified foods, or GMOs, inspire strong reactions nowadays, but humans have been tweaking the genetics of our favourite produce for millennia. While GMOs may involve splicing genes from other organisms (such as bacteria) to give plants desired traits – like resistance to pests, selective breeding is a slower process whereby farmers select and grow crops with those traits over time.

From bananas to eggplant, here are some of the foods that looked totally different before humans first started growing them for food. Wild watermelon Alvaro/Wikimedia Commons This 17th-century painting by Giovanni Stanchi depicts a watermelon that looks strikingly different from modern melons, as Vox points out. Modern watermelon Scott Ehardt/Wikimedia Wild banana Genetic Literacy Project Modern banana Domiriel/Flickr Creative Commons Wild eggplant Wild carrot. The USSR: A Short History. Ancient Greek manuscripts reveal life lessons from the Roman empire. Ever been unsure about how to deal with a drunken family member returning from an orgy? A collection of newly translated textbooks aimed at Greek speakers learning Latin in the ancient world might hold the solution.

Professor Eleanor Dickey travelled around Europe to view the scraps of material that remain from ancient Latin school textbooks, or colloquia, which would have been used by young Greek speakers in the Roman empire learning Latin between the second and sixth centuries AD. The manuscripts, which Dickey has brought together and translated into English for the first time in her forthcoming book Learning Latin the Ancient Way: Latin Textbooks in the Ancient World, lay out everyday scenarios to help their readers get to grips with life in Latin. Subjects range from visiting the public baths to arriving at school late – and dealing with a sozzled close relative.

“Quis sic facit, domine, quomodo tu, ut tantum bibis? Dickey said the texts were very commonly used. Eläimet saattavat kuoleman maahan | Kulttuuri. Jos havaitset hämärässä mustan koiran, ole tarkkana! Hehkuvatko sen silmät aavemaista valoa? Eikö sen turkki kiillä kuunvalossa? Kulkeeko se äänettömin tassuin? Mikäli nämä tunnusmerkit täyttyvät on kyseessä paholaismainen musta koira, joka ennustaa tuhoa ja kuolemaa. Oudosti käyttäytyvä eläin, outoon aikaan, oudossa paikassa, oli varma kuoleman enne.

Myös poikkeavan väriset eläimet ennustivat kuolemaa, erityisesti hämärän aikaan yksin liikkuvat mustat koirat tai kissat. Varmin merkki lähestyvästä kuolemasta oli pihapuuhun lentänyt korppi. Valkyyrikorpit olivat ruumiin valitsijoita. Korppi on monissa kulttuureissa liitetty kuolemaan ja kuoleman jumaluuksiin. Kuoleman haltiattaret valkyriat saapuivat kaatuneiden sotilaiden luo usein korpin hahmoisina. Suomalaisille korppi oli lemmon lintu, kerätty kekäleistä ja sysipuista. The Birth And Death Of Privacy: 3,000 Years of History Told Through 46 Images — The Ferenstein Wire.

Increased urban density and skyrocketing rents in the major cities has put pressure on communal living. “We’re seeing a shift in consciousness from hyper-individualistic to more cooperative spaces…We have a vision to raise our families together.” ~ Jordan Aleja Grader, San Francisco resident At the more extreme ends, a new crop of so-called “life bloggers” publicize intimate details about their days: At the edges of transparency and pornography, anonymous exhibitionism finds a home on the web, at the wildly popular content aggregator, Reddit, in the aptly titled community “Gone Wild”.

For 3,000 years, most people have been perfectly willing to trade privacy for convenience, wealth or fame. It appears this is still true today. AT&T recently rolled out a discounted broadband internet service, where customers could pay a mere $30 more a month to not have their browsing behavior tracked online for ad targeting. Even for holdouts, the costs of privacy may be too great to bear. How Much Water Reached Rome? (Courtesy Duncan Keenan-Jones, University of Glasgow) Anio Novus aqueduct, ItalyRome’s 11 aqueducts, some extending for more than 50 miles, transported enough water to feed the city’s 591 public fountains, as well as countless private residences.

However, experts have long been divided about how much water each aqueduct could actually convey. “Many assumptions have been made based on some pretty unreliable ancient data concerning the size of the flows of Rome’s aqueducts, giving some very inflated figures,” says archaeologist Duncan Keenan-Jones of the University of Glasgow. “We thought it was important to adopt a more scientific approach.”

Keenan-Jones is part of a team of scientists who measured the amount of residual mineral deposits in the Anio Novus aqueduct to accurately gauge the depth and flow rate of water. Life before antibiotics (and maybe life after an antibiotic apocalypse) - BBC Newsbeat. What toilets and sewers tell us about ancient Roman sanitation. I've spent an awful lot of time in Roman sewers – enough to earn me the nickname "Queen of Latrines" from my friends.

The Etruscans laid the first underground sewers in the city of Rome around 500 BC. These cavernous tunnels below the city's streets were built of finely carved stones, and the Romans were happy to utilize them when they took over the city. Such structures then became the norm in many cities throughout the Roman world. Focusing on life in ancient Rome, Pompeii, Herculaneum and Ostia, I'm deeply impressed by the brilliant engineers who designed these underground marvels and the magnificent architecture that masks their functional purpose. The streets of a Roman city would have been cluttered with dung, vomit, pee, shit, garbage, filthy water, rotting vegetables, animal skins and guts, and other refuse from various shops that lined the sidewalks. Sewers managed excess water more than waste The Cloaca Maxima in Rome was not part of a master plan to sanitize the city. Helsinki on täynnä bordellien jälkiä – maalaistyttöjen kehoista taisteltiin heti rautatieasemalla - Prostituutio - Kaupunki.

Helsinki on täynnä bordellien jälkiä – maalaistyttöjen kehoista taisteltiin heti rautatieasemalla Kun torimyyjät ja kaupunkirouvat siirtyvät illan tullen sisätiloihin, alkaa Helsingissä öinen kuhina. On vuosi 1867, ja pimeässä kadunkulmauksessa hihaan tarttuva nainen on hyvin todennäköisesti prostituoitu. Helsingissä toimii kymmeniä bordelleja – mitä lähempänä keskustaa, sitä laadukkaampi ja kalliimpi paikka on.

Maksullista seksiä löytää helposti myös kadulta tai yleisestä saunasta. Prostituoidun tunnisti helposti, kertoo prostituution historiaa tutkinut dosentti Antti Häkkinen. Julkisilla paikoilla notkumista ei myöskään katsottu hyvällä: se oli lailla kiellettyä, ja siitä saattoi joutua vankilaan. "Siinä oli sellainen koodisto. Tunnusmerkkinä käytettiin myös harmaata hartiasaalia. Perheettömiä, yläluokkaisia miehiä sen sijaan liikkui kaupungilla paljon. Isolla Roobertinkadulla sijaitseva bordelli oli rikkaiden huvituksia varten. Ainakin tarjontaa oli valtavasti.

Untitled. Ancient Rome was a cosmopolitan city, drawing in people and products from across the Mediterranean world and beyond. By the late first century BC, there were as many as one million inhabitants in Rome, an urban population figure not reached again in the western world until London in around 1800. Like most urban residents, the people of Rome relied on retailers to provide them with food, clothing and other goods.

Our ancient evidence points to a thriving retail trade in the city and, for any ancient visitor, the sheer number of retailers and shoppers must have been one of the most striking aspects of the Roman cityscape. Retailers were found in the busiest areas of the city. Market traders, street sellers and ambulant hawkers also tended to be found in central areas. Reliefs and paintings, drawn mainly from Pompeii and from Rome’s port city of Ostia, are our best evidence for the appearance of Roman stalls. Another Pompeian painting shows a tableau of everyday events in the forum. Suomalaisten pyhiinvaellukset keskiajalla | Kalle Haatanen.

Sex Behind Closed Doors: Marriage, and the Invention of Privacy | Annals of Pornographie. Greek and Roman Armour Day - 20 July 2015. Upload Roman Society website Roman Society Loading... Working... ► Play all Greek and Roman Armour Day - 20 July 2015 by Roman Society8 videos701 viewsLast updated on Aug 24, 2015 Play all Sign in to YouTube Sign in History Sign in to add this to Watch Later Add to Loading playlists...