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Researchers & Theories...
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin SJ ( French: [pjɛʁ tejaʁ də ʃaʁdɛ̃] ; May 1, 1881 – April 10, 1955) was a French philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a paleontologist and geologist and took part in the discovery of Peking Man and Piltdown Man . [ 1 ] Teilhard conceived the idea of the Omega Point (a maximum level of complexity and consciousness towards which he believed the universe was evolving) and developed Vladimir Vernadsky 's concept of Noosphere .
The Complexity of Things Previously on this blog (quite a while ago), we’ve investigated some simple ideas of using randomness in artistic design ( psychedelic art , and earlier randomized css designs ), and measuring the complexity of such constructions . Here we intend to give a more thorough and rigorous introduction to the study of the complexity of strings.
The Noosphere ( pron.: / ˈ n oʊ . ɵ s f ɪər / ; sometimes noösphere ), according to the thought of Vladimir Vernadsky [ 1 ] and Teilhard de Chardin , denotes the " sphere of human thought". [ 2 ] The word is derived from the Greek νοῦς ( nous " mind ") and σφαῖρα (sphaira " sphere "), in lexical analogy to " atmosphere " and " biosphere ". [ 3 ] It was introduced by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin in 1922 [ 4 ] in his Cosmogenesis . [ 5 ] Another possibility is the first use of the term by Édouard Le Roy , who together with Teilhard was listening to lectures of Vladimir Vernadsky at Sorbonne . In 1936 Vernadsky accepted the idea of the Noosphere in a letter to Boris Leonidovich Lichkov (though, he states that the concept derives from Le Roy). [ 6 ]
A wide-ranging list of philosophers from the Western traditions of philosophy. Included are not only philosophers (Socrates, Plato), but also those who have had a marked importance upon the philosophy of the day.
This is a list of some of the major unsolved problems in philosophy . Clearly, unsolved philosophical problems exist in the lay sense (e.g. " What is the meaning of life? ", " Where did we come from?
A holon ( Greek : ὅλον, holon neuter form of ὅλος, holos "whole") is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part. The word was coined by Arthur Koestler in his book The Ghost in the Machine (1967, p. 48).
Second-order cybernetics , also known as the cybernetics of cybernetics , investigates the construction of models of cybernetic systems . It investigates cybernetics with awareness that the investigators are part of the system , and of the importance of self-referentiality , self-organizing , the subject–object problem , etc. Investigators of a system can never see how it works by standing outside it because the investigators are always engaged cybernetically with the system being observed; that is, when investigators observe a system, they affect and are affected by it.
The holonomic brain theory , originated by psychologist Karl Pribram and initially developed in collaboration with physicist David Bohm , is a model for human cognition that is drastically different from conventionally accepted ideas: Pribram and Bohm posit a model of cognitive function as being guided by a matrix of neurological wave interference patterns situated temporally between holographic Gestalt perception and discrete, affective, quantum vectors derived from reward anticipation potentials. Pribram was originally struck by the similarity of the hologram idea and Bohm's idea of the implicate order in physics, and contacted him for collaboration.
Living systems are open self-organizing living things that interact with their environment . These systems are maintained by flows of information, energy and matter.
Impression of systems thinking about society [ 1 ] Systems science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of complex systems in nature , society , and science itself.
Impression of systems thinking about society [ 1 ]
This article largely discusses complex systems as a subject of mathematics and the attempts to emulate physical complex systems with emergent properties. For other scientific and professional disciplines addressing complexity in their fields see the complex systems article and references. A complex system is a system composed of interconnected parts that as a whole exhibit one or more properties (behavior among the possible properties) not obvious from the properties of the individual parts. [ 1 ] A system’s complexity may be of one of two forms: disorganized complexity and organized complexity . [ 2 ] In essence, disorganized complexity is a matter of a very large number of parts, and organized complexity is a matter of the subject system (quite possibly with only a limited number of parts) exhibiting emergent properties.
Dynamic stock and flow diagram of model New product adoption (model from article by John Sterman 2001)
Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research. [ citation needed ] The term does not yet have a well-established, precise meaning, but systems theory can reasonably be considered a specialization of systems thinking , a generalization of systems science , a systems approach.
Autopoiesis (from Greek αὐτo- (auto-) , meaning "self", and ποίησις (poiesis) , meaning "creation, production") literally means "self-creation" and expresses a fundamental dialectic among structure , mechanism and function . The term was introduced in 1972 by Chilean biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela :