The Philosopher Stoned. Kolmogorov Complexity – A Primer. The Complexity of Things Previously on this blog (quite a while ago), we’ve investigated some simple ideas of using randomness in artistic design (psychedelic art, and earlier randomized css designs), and measuring the complexity of such constructions.
Here we intend to give a more thorough and rigorous introduction to the study of the complexity of strings. This naturally falls into the realm of computability theory and complexity theory, and so we refer the novice reader to our other primers on the subject (Determinism and Finite Automata, Turing Machines, and Complexity Classes; but Turing machines will be the most critical to this discussion). The Problem with Randomness What we would really love to do is be able to look at a string of binary digits and decide how “random” it is. And yet, by the immutable laws of probability, each string has an equal chance ( ) in being chosen at random from all sequences of 50 binary digits. Noosphere. Comparison between Karl Pribram's "Holographic Brain Theory" and ore conventional models of neuronal computation. One of the problems facing neural science is how to explain evidence that local lesions in the brain do not selectively impair one or another memory trace.
Note that in a hologram, restrictive damage does not disrupt the stored information because it has become distributed. Timeline of Western philosophers. A wide-ranging list of philosophers from the Western traditions of philosophy.
Included are not only philosophers (Socrates, Plato), but also those who have had a marked importance upon the philosophy of the day. The list stops at the year 1950, after which philosophers fall into the category of Contemporary philosophy. Western and Middle Eastern philosophers Classical philosophers 600-500 BCE 500-400 BCE List of unsolved problems in philosophy.
This is a list of some of the major unsolved problems in philosophy.
Clearly, unsolved philosophical problems exist in the lay sense (e.g. "What is the meaning of life? ", "Where did we come from? ", "What is reality? " Holon (philosophy) A holon (Greek: ὅλον, holon neuter form of ὅλος, holos "whole") is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part.
The word was coined by Arthur Koestler in his book The Ghost in the Machine (1967, p. 48). Koestler was compelled by two observations in proposing the notion of the holon. The first observation was influenced by Nobel Prize winner Herbert A. Simon's parable of the two watchmakers, wherein Simon concludes that complex systems will evolve from simple systems much more rapidly if there are stable intermediate forms present in that evolutionary process than if they are not present. The second observation was made by Koestler himself in his analysis of hierarchies and stable intermediate forms in both living organisms and social organizations. He concluded that, although it is easy to identify sub-wholes or parts, wholes and parts in an absolute sense do not exist anywhere.
Second-order cybernetics. Second-order cybernetics, also known as the cybernetics of cybernetics, investigates the construction of models of cybernetic systems.
It investigates cybernetics with awareness that the investigators are part of the system, and of the importance of self-referentiality, self-organizing, the subject–object problem, etc. Investigators of a system can never see how it works by standing outside it because the investigators are always engaged cybernetically with the system being observed; that is, when investigators observe a system, they affect and are affected by it. Holonomic brain theory. The holonomic brain theory, developed by neuroscientist Karl Pribram initially in collaboration with physicist David Bohm, is a model of human cognition that describes the brain as a holographic storage network. Pribram suggests these processes involve electric oscillations in the brain's fine-fibered dendritic webs, which are different than the more commonly known action potentials involving axons and synapses. These oscillations are waves and create wave interference patterns in which memory is encoded naturally, in a way that can be described with Fourier Transformation equations. Gabor, Pribram and others noted the similarities between these brain processes and the storage of information in a hologram, which also uses Fourier Transformations. In a hologram, any part of the hologram with sufficient size contains the whole of the stored information.
Origins and development 90 Most Influential philosophers of All-Time. Living systems. Some scientists have proposed in the last few decades that a general living systems theory is required to explain the nature of life. Such general theory, arising out of the ecological and biological sciences, attempts to map general principles for how all living systems work.
Instead of examining phenomena by attempting to break things down into components, a general living systems theory explores phenomena in terms of dynamic patterns of the relationships of organisms with their environment. Theory Living systems theory is a general theory about the existence of all living systems, their structure, interaction, behavior and development. This work is created by James Grier Miller, which was intended to formalize the concept of life. Miller said that systems exist at eight "nested" hierarchical levels: cell, organ, organism, group, organization, community, society, and supranational system. Systems science. Impression of systems thinking about society.
Systems science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of complex systems in nature, society, and science itself. It aims to develop interdisciplinary foundations that are applicable in a variety of areas, such as engineering, biology, medicine, and social sciences. Systems science covers formal sciences such as complex systems, cybernetics, dynamical systems theory, and systems theory, and applications in the field of the natural and social sciences and engineering, such as control theory, operations research, social systems theory, systems biology, systems dynamics, systems ecology, systems engineering and systems psychology. Systems thinking. Impression of systems thinking about society A system is composed of interrelated parts or components (structures) that cooperate in processes (behavior).
Complex system. This article largely discusses complex systems as a subject of mathematics and the attempts to emulate physical complex systems with emergent properties. For other scientific and professional disciplines addressing complexity in their fields see the complex systems article and references. A complex system is a damped, driven system (for example, a harmonic oscillator) whose total energy exceeds the threshold for it to perform according to classical mechanics but does not reach the threshold for the system to exhibit properties according to chaos theory. History System dynamics. Dynamic stock and flow diagram of model New product adoption (model from article by John Sterman 2001) System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time.
It deals with internal feedback loops and time delays that affect the behaviour of the entire system. What makes using system dynamics different from other approaches to studying complex systems is the use of feedback loops and stocks and flows. These elements help describe how even seemingly simple systems display baffling nonlinearity. Overview System dynamics (SD) is a methodology and mathematical modeling technique for framing, understanding, and discussing complex issues and problems. Convenient GUI system dynamics software developed into user friendly versions by the 1990s and have been applied to diverse systems.
Systems theory. Autopoiesis. 3D representation of a living cell during the process of mitosis, example of an autopoietic system. The original definition can be found in Autopoiesis and Cognition: the Realization of the Living (1st edition 1973, 2nd 1980): Page 78: - An autopoietic machine is a machine organized (defined as a unity) as a network of processes of production (transformation and destruction) of components which: (i) through their interactions and transformations continuously regenerate and realize the network of processes (relations) that produced them; and (ii) constitute it (the machine) as a concrete unity in space in which they (the components) exist by specifying the topological domain of its realization as such a network.  Page 89:- [...] the space defined by an autopoietic system is self-contained and cannot be described by using dimensions that define another space.
Meaning Criticism See also Notes and references Further reading External links Neuroscience News. In the 1983 movie “A Man with Two Brains,” Steve Martin kept his second brain in a jar. In reality, he had two brains inside his own skull—as we all do, one on the left and one on the right hemisphere. When it comes to seeing the world around us, each of our two brains works independently and each has its own bottleneck for working memory. Normally, it takes years or decades after a brand new discovery about the brain for any practical implications to emerge.
But this study by MIT neuroscientists could be put to immediate use in designing more effective cognitive therapy, smarter brain games, better “heads up displays,” and much more. Science express » Exhibition Topics. 001 ON THE WAY TO THE BIG BANGWhy are the laws of nature the way they are? Why did the world not disperse as light during the Big Bang, instead of forming stable matter? How did the Universe expand to its current size? What determined its speed? How constant are natural constants? 911:Energy - Wikicompany. “All that is, is Light.” - Walter Russell. Mind–body problem. Different approaches toward resolving the mind–body problem.
Chinese room. World view. Intentionality. The Quantum Mystics. Posted by John F. McGowan, Ph.D. in Applied Math, History, Math Education on October 3rd, 2010 | 6 responses. Consensus reality. Consensus reality is that which is generally agreed to be reality, based on a consensus view. The difficulty with the question stems from the concern that human beings do not in fact fully understand or agree upon the nature of knowledge or ontology, and therefore it is not possible to be certain beyond doubt what is real. Accordingly, this line of logic concludes, we cannot in fact be sure beyond doubt about the nature of reality. Social constructionism. Fundamental Fysiks Group. What Is It Like to Be a Baby: The Development of Thought. Imagining the Tenth Dimension - A Book by Rob Bryanton.
What is the Higgs boson and why does it matter? - physics-math - 13 December 2011. Read full article Continue reading page |1|2. What is the Higgs boson and why does it matter? - physics-math - 13 December 2011. Reconstructing visual experiences from brain activity evoked by natural movies. - GallantLabUCB. 4chan - 404. Energetic Forum - Energetic Science Ministries.
Energetic Forum - View Single Post - a better way to present the periodic table.