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GROUNDS. PASTELS. WATERCOLOUR. Contour drawing. Importance[edit] Contour drawing is an essential technique in the field of art because it is a strong foundation for any drawing or painting; it can potentially modify a subjects’ form through variation within the lines.

Contour drawing

Its objective is to capture the life, action, or expression of the subject.[2] It is widely accepted among schools, art institutions, and colleges as an effective training aid and discipline[3] for beginner artists. In the hands of a talented master, the line that conveys contour can deliver an astonishing amount of visual delight. Technique[edit] Styles[edit] Practice[edit] References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Sutherland, Jane. 1997. Drawing. Visual artwork in two-dimensional medium A drawing instrument releases a small amount of material onto a surface, leaving a visible mark.


The most common support for drawing is paper, although other materials, such as cardboard, wood, plastic, leather, canvas, and board, may be used. Temporary drawings may be made on a blackboard or whiteboard or indeed almost anything. The medium has been a popular and fundamental means of public expression throughout human history. It is one of the simplest and most efficient means of communicating visual ideas.[1] The wide availability of drawing instruments makes drawing one of the most common artistic activities.

Overview[edit] Drawing is one of the oldest forms of human expression within the visual arts. Principles, Techniques, & History. Drawing, the art or technique of producing images on a surface, usually paper, by means of marks, usually of ink, graphite, chalk, charcoal, or crayon.

Principles, Techniques, & History

List of art media. Visual arts media is the material and tools used by an artist, composer or designer to create a work of art,[1] for example, "pen and ink" where the pen is the tool and the ink is the material.

List of art media

Here is a list of types of art and the media used within those types. Architecture[edit] Carpentry[edit] Ceramics[edit] Metal – Art Term. There are two families of metals: ferrous and non ferrous.

Metal – Art Term

All ferrous metals contain iron. Non ferrous metals include aluminium, zinc and copper and its alloys, for example bronze. Metals can be hammered without breaking or cracking them in order to shape them, they can also be melted and used in moulds or made into wire and modelled – this makes them ideal media for sculptors to work with. The use of bronze for making cast sculpture is very ancient, and bronze is perhaps the metal most traditionally thought of as a sculptural medium. From the early twentieth century, however, artists such as Pablo Picasso and the Russian constructivists began to explore the use of other metals, and Julio González introduced welded metal sculpture. Graphite – Art Term. Graphite is a crystalline form of carbon and is useful as a writing and drawing tool, as only the slightest pressure is needed to leave a mark.

Graphite – Art Term

It has a greasy texture and is dull metallic grey in colour. Graphite is a stable and permanent material but can easily be removed using an eraser. Graphite is soft and brittle so, unless being used as a drawing material in powder form, it requires some form of protective casing. The exact date and origin of the first graphite pencils is unknown but it is thought that the first graphite sticks encased in wood appeared around 1565, shortly after the discovery of natural graphite in Cumberland in Britain. Chalk – Art Term. Resin – Art Term. As a fairly lightweight, durable material that is relatively cheap – compared to other traditional sculptural materials – it a desirable medium for artists (especially those who want to make multiple versions of a sculpture).

Resin – Art Term

Resin can also be painted or glazed to look like stone, bronze or marble. Resins can be either natural or synthetic. ‘Natural’ resins derive from either plants or insects, whereas ‘synthetic’ resins (e.g. alkyd and acrylic) are manufactured industrially. They can usually be dissolved in organic solvents to produce a clear solution, although many synthetic resins are produced as dispersions. Pastel – Art Term. Oil paint – Art Term. The drying oil is a vegetable oil, often made by crushing nuts or seeds.

Oil paint – Art Term

Gouache – Art Term. The term gouache was first used in France in the eighteenth century to describe a type of paint made from pigments bound in water-soluble gum, like watercolour, but with the addition of a white pigment in order to make it opaque.

Gouache – Art Term

Larger percentages of binder are used than with watercolour, and various amounts of inert pigments such as chalk are added to enhance the opacity. Gouache forms a thicker layer of paint on the paper surface and does not allow the paper to show through. It is often used to create highlights in watercolours. Today the term gouache is often used loosely to describe any drawing made in body colour.

Bodycolour is any type of opaque water-soluble pigment; used by artists from the late fifteenth century. Canvas – Art Term. Commonly made of either linen or cotton thread, but also manufactured from man-made materials such as polyester.

Canvas – Art Term

Shaped canvas A shaped canvas is a canvas that is not the traditional rectangular shape. Although there have been many examples of irregular shaped canvases throughout the history of art, the term gained currency in the 1960s and tends to be associated with a type of geometric abstract painting that came to prominence in the late 1950s early 1960s. Artists like Frank Stella used the edges of irregular shaped canvases to define the form of the painting. Ellsworth Kelly and Jeremy Moon also notably experimented with shaped canvases. Shaped canvas also raised questions about the painting as an object in its own right, not as something representative or illustrative of something else.

Readymade – Art Term. Duchamp’s earliest readymades included Bicycle Wheel of 1913, a wheel mounted on a wooden stool, and In Advance of the Broken Arm of 1915, a snow shovel inscribed with that title. In 1917 in New York, Duchamp made his most notorious readymade, Fountain, a men’s urinal signed by the artist with a false name and exhibited placed on its back. Later readymades were more elaborate and were referred to by Duchamp as assisted readymades. For his readymades Duchamp deliberately chose ordinary, functional – and rather dull – objects. His choice was: Paper – Art Term. Ink – Art Term. Charcoal – Art Term. Acrylic paint – Art Term. Materials Coursework Guide – Student Resource.

Introduction: What are materials? Materials are what things are made from. Materials have different qualities: they can be smooth or rough; hard or soft; heavy or light; fragile or indestructible. Artists choose materials because of their particular qualites. The same material can be used in very different ways to achieve very different results. The twentieth century saw artists experimenting with unexpected materials. Materials, qualities and techniques To mis-quote a classic 1980s pop song lyric: ‘It ‘aint what you use it’s the way that you use it’. Even quite ordinary art materials can be used in different ways to create very different effects. Washes, splats and layers: paint and what it can do You may think that paint is a pretty standard art material.

J.M.W. Turner enjoyed experimenting with the qualities of paint, but he usually depicted real places or recognisable scenes. The rough with the smooth Look at these sculptures. Material Tricks Jeff Koons also tricks us. Nature into Art.