Along with all the hubbub about the victory of IBM’s Watson supercomputer over human competitors on Jeopardy, there has been a lot of talk about the “ Singularity ,” in which computers move closer to matching the intelligence of humans, and humans embed more technology to augment their own bodies. Technology will open our minds: Michael Chorost So the timing couldn’t have been better for the release of Michael Chorost’s new book World Wide Mind: The Coming Integration of Humanity, Machines, and the Internet . Chorost proposes that technology is evolving to the point that it will bring our collective thinking and intellectual capacity into a kind of global “hive mind.” Technology, he posits, may augment neural processes and, thus, enable “electronic telepathy,” or digital communication between human minds.
Anthropology ( pron.: / æ n θ r ɵ ˈ p ɒ l ə dʒ i / ) is the "science of humanity ." [ 1 ] It has origins in the humanities , the natural sciences , and the social sciences . [ 2 ] The term " anthropology " is from the Greek anthrōpos ( ἄνθρωπος ), "man", understood to mean humankind or humanity, and -logia (-λογία), "discourse" or "study." Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology has been distinguished from other social sciences by its emphasis on in-depth examination of context, cross-cultural comparisons , and the importance it places on participant-observation , or long-term, experiential immersion in the area of research.
Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations . Educational psychology is concerned with how students learn and develop, often focusing on subgroups such as gifted children and those subject to specific disabilities . Researchers and theorists are likely to be identified in the US and Canada as educational psychologists , whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists . This distinction is, however, not made in the UK, where the generic term for practitioners is "educational psychologist." Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology , bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology .
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations Computer science or computing science (abbreviated CS or CompSci ) is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems. [ 1 ] Its subfields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines.
Artificial Intelligence ( AI ), a branch of computer science , is the study of intelligent systems (i.e. software, computers, robots, etc.). Alternatively, it may be defined as "the study and design of intelligent agents", [ 1 ] where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. [ 2 ] John McCarthy , who coined the term in 1955, [ 3 ] defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". [ 4 ] AI research is highly technical and specialised, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. [ 5 ] Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues.
Lewis Mumford , KBE (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian , sociologist , philosopher of technology , and influential literary critic . Particularly noted for his study of cities and urban architecture, he had a broad career as a writer. Mumford was influenced by the work of Scottish theorist Sir Patrick Geddes and worked closely with his associate the British sociologist Victor Branford . Mumford was also a contemporary and friend of Frank Lloyd Wright , Clarence Stein , Frederic Osborn , Edmund N. Bacon , and Vannevar Bush .
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception , language , memory , reasoning , and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology , artificial intelligence , philosophy , neuroscience , linguistics , and anthropology . [ 1 ] It spans many levels of analysis, from low-level learning and decision mechanisms to high-level logic and planning; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures." [ 1 ]
Contrary to common ideas as expressed in this diagram, brain functions are not confined to certain fixed locations. Neuroplasticity (from neural - pertaining to the nerves and/or brain and plastic - moldable or changeable in structure), also known as brain plasticity , refers to changes in neural pathways and synapses which are due to changes in behavior, environment and neural processes, as well as changes resulting from bodily injury. [ 1 ] Neuroplasticity has replaced the formerly-held position that the brain is a physiologically static organ, and explores how - and in which ways - the brain changes throughout life. [ 2 ] Neuroplasticity occurs on a variety of levels, ranging from cellular changes due to learning, to large-scale changes involved in cortical remapping in response to injury. The role of neuroplasticity is widely recognized in healthy development, learning, memory, and recovery from brain damage.
The generation gap has been upgraded. In a world brimming with ever-advancing technology, the generations are now separated by a "brain gap" between young "digital natives" and older "digital immigrants," according to Dr. Gary Small, director of UCLA's Memory and Aging Research Center at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, and UCLA's Parlow-Solomon Chair on Aging. "We know that technology is changing our lives.