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Cognitive science

Cognitive science
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes.[1] It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology.[2] It spans many levels of analysis, from low-level learning and decision mechanisms to high-level logic and planning; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures. Principles[edit] Related:  The problems with philosophyIA / Cognition

Computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations History[edit] The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division. Blaise Pascal designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator, Pascal's calculator, in 1642.[3] In 1673 Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the 'Stepped Reckoner'.[4] He may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, for, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology. Contributions[edit] These contributions include: Philosophy[edit] sequence:

List of psychic abilities This is a list of psychic abilities that have been attributed to real-world people. Many of these are also known as extrasensory perception or sixth sense. There is no evidence that psychic abilities exist, and they are not recognized by the scientific community. Superhuman abilities from fiction are not included. Jump up ^ Fontana, David (2005).

Mental process A specific instance of engaging in a cognitive process is a mental event. The event of perceiving something is, of course, different from the entire process, or capacity of perception—one's ability to perceive things. In other words, an instance of perceiving is different from the ability that makes those instances possible. See also[edit] External links[edit] Mental Processes at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 8 façons de plaider efficacement en faveur de l'IA en entreprise De nombreuses recherches montrent que tous les secteurs d'activité sont prêts pour une révolution de l'IA, y compris le service à la clientèle, l'e-commerce, la gestion des produits et le marketing. Pour mieux comprendre comment les pionniers de l'intelligence artificielle (IA) peuvent efficacement positionner et promouvoir l'adoption de l'intelligence artificielle (IA) au sein de leur organisation, j'ai pris contact avec un pionnier de l'analyse, du Big Data et de l'IA qui a préconisé et mis en œuvre des technologies d'IA au cours de son illustre carrière. Ketan Karkhanis est vice-président senior et directeur général de Salesforce Analytics, où il est responsable de tous les aspects de l'activité analytique, notamment la stratégie produit, le marketing, l'ingénierie et la distribution. Ketan Karkhanis comprend la complexité, les avantages et les meilleures pratiques associés à l'adoption de l'intelligence artificielle et à la transformation numérique. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Trop dur.

Educational psychology Educational psychology is the study of human learning. The study of learning processes, both cognitive and affective, allows researchers to understand individual differences in behavior, personality, intellect, and self- concept. The field of educational psychology heavily relies on testing, measurement, assessment, evaluation, and training to enhance educational activities and learning processes.[1] This can involve studying instructional processes within the classroom setting. Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. It is also informed by neuroscience. The field of educational psychology involves the study of memory, conceptual processes, and individual differences (via cognitive psychology) in conceptualizing new strategies for learning processes in humans. History[edit] Early years[edit]

Decrypting text Encrypted text is sometimes achieved by replacing one letter by another. To start deciphering the encryption it is useful to get a frequency count of all the letters. The most frequent letter may represent the most common letter in English E followed by T, A, O and I whereas the least frequent are Q, Z and X. Common percentages in standard English are: and ranked in order: Common pairs are consonants TH and vowels EA. If the results show that E followed by T are the most common letters then the ciphertext may be a transposition cipher rather than a substitution. The box below contains example ciphertext.

Mental representation Hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science, is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality or its abstractions.[1][2] Mental representation is the mental imagery of things that are not actually present to the senses.[3] In contemporary philosophy, specifically in fields of metaphysics such as philosophy of mind and ontology, a mental representation is one of the prevailing ways of explaining and describing the nature of ideas and concepts. Mental representations (or mental imagery) enable representing things that have never been experienced as well as things that do not exist.[4] Our brains and mental imageries allow us to imagine things have either never happened or are impossible and do not exist. Representational theories of mind[edit] Canadian philosopher P. Responses[edit] Philosophers[edit]

Nouveau monde. Pourquoi les assistants vocaux ont besoin d’écoutes humaines William Simonin dirige la startup française Vivoka, spécialisée dans la reconnaissance vocale. Il explique pourquoi l’intervention humaine reste nécessaire pour améliorer l’intelligence artificielle même si cela soulève des craintes en matière de vie privée. franceinfo : Faut-il se méfier des assistants vocaux ? William Simonin : je n’irai pas jusqu’à dire qu’il faut s’en méfier mais il faut bien comprendre comment ça marche. La reconnaissance vocale fait appel à un "moteur" logiciel appelé Speech To Text (STT), qui convertit la parole en texte écrit. Cependant, là où il faut se méfier, ou au moins se renseigner, c’est lorsqu’il s’agit d’entreprise ayant un modèle économique axé sur la donnée, ce qui est typiquement le cas de Google. Comment fonctionne votre assistant vocal ? Chez Vivoka, nous développons uniquement des assistants vocaux sur mesure pour les entreprises. Un assistant vocal non connecté est-il moins performant ?