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Cognitive science

Cognitive science
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes.[1] It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on intelligence and behavior, especially focusing on how information is represented, processed, and transformed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion) within nervous systems (human or other animal) and machines (e.g. computers). Cognitive science consists of multiple research disciplines, including psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology.[2] It spans many levels of analysis, from low-level learning and decision mechanisms to high-level logic and planning; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is "that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures."[2] Principles[edit]

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Computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations History[edit] The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division. Further, algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before sophisticated computing equipment were created.

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This Free Checking Account Means I’ll Never Pay an ATM Fee Again I recently made a huge move — from Wisconsin to Florida — but it’s not my first. Before that, I had stints in Seattle, Salt Lake City and San Francisco. Plus there was a period where I didn’t have any residence at all. I bounced from city to city for about eight months via hotel rooms, couches and lots of goodwill. To say this lifestyle makes banking a challenge would be an understatement.

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Philosophy v science: which can answer the big questions of life? Julian Baggini No one who has understood even a fraction of what science has told us about the universe can fail to be in awe of both the cosmos and of science. When physics is compared with the humanities and social sciences, it is easy for the scientists to feel smug and the rest of us to feel somewhat envious. Philosophers in particular can suffer from lab-coat envy. If only our achievements were so clear and indisputable! How wonderful it would be to be free from the duty of constantly justifying the value of your discipline. However – and I'm sure you could see a "but" coming – I do wonder whether science hasn't suffered from a little mission creep of late.

Decrypting text Encrypted text is sometimes achieved by replacing one letter by another. To start deciphering the encryption it is useful to get a frequency count of all the letters. The most frequent letter may represent the most common letter in English E followed by T, A, O and I whereas the least frequent are Q, Z and X. Common percentages in standard English are: and ranked in order: Common pairs are consonants TH and vowels EA.

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