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Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality , existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument . [ 3 ] In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group". [ 4 ] The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία ( philosophia ), which literally means "love of wisdom". [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras . [ 8 ] A "philosopher" was understood as a word which contrasted with " sophist ".
Epiphenomenalism is the theory in philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are caused by physical processes in the brain or that both are effects of a common cause, as opposed to mental phenomena driving the physical mechanics of the brain. The impression that thoughts, feelings, or sensations cause physical effects, is therefore to be understood as illusory to some extent. For example, it is not the feeling of fear that produces an increase in heart beat, both are symptomatic of a common physiological origin, possibly in response to a legitimate external threat. [ 1 ] [ edit ] Development The history of epiphenomenalism goes back to the post-Cartesian attempt to solve the riddle of Cartesian dualism , i.e., of how mind and body could interact.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre ( / ˈ s ɑr t r ə / ; French: [saʁtʁ] ; 21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary critic . He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism, and one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism . His work has also influenced sociology , critical theory , post-colonial theory , and literary studies , and continues to influence these disciplines. Sartre has also been noted for his relationship with the prominent feminist theorist Simone de Beauvoir , who rejected his proposal for marriage on more than one occasion. He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature and refused it, saying that he always declined official honors and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution". [ 2 ] [ edit ] Biography
John Stuart Mill , FRSE (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher , political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory , political theory , and political economy . He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century". [ 3 ] Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. [ 4 ] He was a proponent of utilitarianism , an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham . Hoping to remedy the problems found in an inductive approach to science, such as confirmation bias , he clearly set forth the premises of falsification as the key component in the scientific method . [ 5 ] Mill was also a Member of Parliament and an important figure in liberal political philosophy . [ edit ] Biography
Social liberalism is the belief that liberalism should include a social foundation, implicitly on a collective , governmental basis. [ citation needed ] It differs from classical liberalism in that it believes the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as health care and education while simultaneously endorsing a market economy and expanding civil and political rights and liberties . [ citation needed ] Under social liberalism, the good of the community is viewed as harmonious with the freedom of the individual. [ 1 ] Social liberal policies have been widely adopted in much of the capitalist world, particularly following World War II . [ 2 ] Social liberal ideas and parties tend to be considered centrist or centre-left . [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] A reaction against social liberalism in the late twentieth century, often called neoliberalism , led to monetarist economic policies and a reduction in government provision of services.
Thomas Aquinas , O.P. ( pron.: / ə ˈ k w aɪ n ə s / ə- KWY -nəs ; 1225 – 7 March 1274), also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino , was an Italian Dominican priest , and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism , within which he is also known as the "Dumb Ox", "Angelic Doctor", " Doctor Communis ", and " Doctor Universalis ". [ 1 ] "Aquinas" is the demonym of Aquino : Thomas came from one of the noblest families of the Kingdom of Naples; his parents held the titles "Count of Aquino" and "Countess of Teano." [ 2 ] He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology , and the father of Thomism . His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or refutation of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law , metaphysics, and political theory.
Immanuel Kant ( German: [ɪˈmaːnu̯eːl kant] ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher. He is a central figure of modern philosophy, and set the terms by which all subsequent thinkers have had to grapple. He argued that human perception structures natural laws, and that reason is the source of morality.
Jeremy Bentham ( pron.: / ˈ b ɛ n θ əm / ; 15 February 1748 OS – 6 June 1832) was a British philosopher , jurist , and social reformer . He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism . Bentham became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law , and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism . He advocated individual and economic freedom , the separation of church and state , freedom of expression , equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalising of homosexual acts. [ 1 ] He called for the abolition of slavery , the abolition of the death penalty , and the abolition of physical punishment, including that of children. [ 2 ] He has also become known in recent years as an early advocate of animal rights . [ 3 ] Though strongly in favour of the extension of individual legal rights , he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights , calling them "nonsense upon stilts." [ 4 ]
Aristotle ( Ancient Greek : Ἀριστοτέλης [aristotélɛːs] , Aristotélēs ) (384 BC – 322 BC) [ 1 ] was a Greek philosopher and polymath , a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great . His writings cover many subjects, including physics , metaphysics , poetry , theater , music , logic , rhetoric , linguistics , politics , government , ethics , biology , and zoology . Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy , encompassing morality , aesthetics , logic , science , politics , and metaphysics . Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance , although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics .
Ayn Rand ( pron.: / ˈ aɪ n ˈ r æ n d / ; [ 1 ] born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum ; February 2 [ O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American novelist, philosopher, [ 2 ] playwright, and screenwriter. She is known for her two best-selling novels, The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged , and for developing a philosophical system she called Objectivism .
Leonardo da Vinci is regarded as a "Renaissance man" and is one of the most recognizable polymaths A polymath ( Greek : πολυμαθής , polymathēs , "having learned much"), [ 1 ] sometimes (if male) referred to as a Renaissance man , is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas. In less formal terms, a polymath (or polymathic person) may simply be someone who is very knowledgeable. Most ancient scientists were polymaths by today's standards. [ 2 ] The term was first used in the seventeenth century but the related term, polyhistor , is an ancient term with similar meaning.