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Aesthetics ( also spelled æsthetics ) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art , beauty , and taste , with the creation and appreciation of beauty. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. [ 3 ] More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature ." [ 4 ] [ 5 ] More specific aesthetic theory, often with practical implications, relating to a particular branch of the arts is divided into areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory , film theory and music theory . [ edit ] Etymology
Epistemology ( i / ɨ ˌ p ɪ s t ɨ ˈ m ɒ l ə dʒ i / from Greek ἐπιστήμη - epistēmē , meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος - logos , meaning "study of") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It questions what knowledge is, how it is acquired, and the possible extent to which a given subject or entity can be known. Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth , belief , and justification . The term was introduced by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier (1808–1864). [ 3 ] The field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge . [ edit ] Knowledge
Ethics , also known as moral philosophy , is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct . [ 1 ] The term comes from the Greek word ethos , which means "character". Ethics is a complement to Aesthetics in the philosophy field of Axiology . In philosophy, ethics studies the moral behavior in humans, and how one should act. Ethics may be divided into four major areas of study: [ 1 ] Meta-ethics , about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth values (if any) may be determined; Normative ethics , about the practical means of determining a moral course of action; Applied ethics , about how moral outcomes can be achieved in specific situations; Descriptive ethics , also known as comparative ethics, is the study of people's beliefs about morality;
Logic (from the Greek λογική , logikē ) [ 1 ] refers to both the study of modes of reasoning (which are valid , and which are fallacious ) [ 2 ] [ 3 ] and the use of valid reasoning. In the latter sense, logic is used in most intellectual activities, including philosophy and science, but in the first sense, is primarily studied in the disciplines of philosophy , mathematics , semantics , and computer science . It examines general forms that arguments may take.
Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world , [ 1 ] although the term is not easily defined. [ 2 ] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms: [ 3 ] What is there ? What is it like ? A person who studies metaphysics is called a metaphysicist [ 4 ] or a metaphysician . [ 5 ] The metaphysician attempts to clarify the fundamental notions by which people understand the world, e.g., existence , objects and their properties , space and time , cause and effect , and possibility .