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Bioinformatics & Genomics

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Nouveaux traitements. Un test sanguin qui permet de connaître son horloge biologique. Tous les matins, votre réveil sonne à 7h30 précises, vous prenez votre petit-déjeuner à 7h45 et vous partez travailler à 8h. Vous êtes quotidiennement réglé comme du papier à musique ! Mais votre horloge biologique, elle, est peut-être déphasée : pour votre corps, il n'est peut-être pas 7h30 quand vous vous levez, mais 6h30 ou 8h30. Un décalage qui peut rendre un traitement médicamenteux pris au quotidien moins efficace.

Pour pallier ce problème, des chercheurs de l'Université Northwestern aux Etats-Unis ont mis au point un test sanguin simple destiné aux chercheurs et médecins afin que ces derniers puissent savoir précisément à quelle heure est l'horloge biologique de leur patient ! Connaître l'impact des horloges biologiques "déréglées" sur le diabète ou Alzheimer "Notre test ne permet pas seulement de savoir si vous êtes plutôt du matin ou du soir, explique dans un communiqué Rosemary Braun, biostatisticienne à l'Université Northwestern et auteure principal de ces travaux. Scientists Illuminate Life's Workings By Calculating The Number Of Protein Molecules In A Single Cell.

Have you ever wondered how many protein molecules are contained within a single cell? Well, you should – after all, life is nothing without proteins and all their forms, from antibodies and enzymes to storage components and messengers. The world without proteins is like a book without words. Knowing how many proteins are contained within the average cell is pretty important – particularly when it comes to understanding how certain diseases emerge – but curiously, up until this point, this number has proven to be elusive. Now, after a fairly complex attempt to find the answer, a team led by the University of Toronto (UoT) has finally settled on a figure: 42 million. Clearly, that’s a lot, and the team over at ScienceAlert has gleefully, and quite rightly, made references to the Meaning of Life, at least the one touted by Douglas Adam’s magnum opus, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy.

Bioinformatics vs Computational Biology | Diamond Age Data Science. The world of quantitative biology is large, diffuse and sometimes overwhelming. It’s hard sometimes to even figure out what someone means when they say “bioinformatics”. This can make it hard to figure out what part of the field someone works in. One way to break it down is to describe bioinformatics as the building of tools and methods for the processing and management of biological data, and computational biology as the pursuit of biological sciences using computational methods. Therefore, bioinformatics is more of an engineering discipline and computational biology more a scientific discipline. It’s helpful to think about these distinctions, subtle as they seem. It takes a certain mindset and skillset to build a robust sequencing analysis pipeline that will serve the needs of a large group of scientists for years.

That mindset and skillset may be very different from the one required to do a deep investigation of the variants that impact risk of heart disease. Data Science Like this: Nous sommes plus que notre ADN : découverte d'un nouveau mécanisme d'hérédité épigénétique. Elles ont toutes le même ADN mais des caractères bien différents : des chercheurs ont obtenu des lignées de drosophiles aux yeux blancs, jaunes ou rouges, en perturbant de façon transitoire des interactions entre des gènes cibles des protéines Polycomb, des complexes protéiques impliqués dans la répression de nombreux gènes, notamment des gènes de développement. Les informations nécessaires au fonctionnement des cellules ne sont pas toutes portées par le matériel génétique. D'autres paramètres, transmis de façon héréditaire mais non codés par les gènes d'un individu, pilotent la vie des cellules.

Ces facteurs dits épigénétiques sont un étiquetage chimique et une organisation spatiale bien définie de notre génome. Ils correspondent en particulier aux modifications des histones, les protéines autour desquelles l'ADN s'enroule. . © Filippo Ciabrelli Three drosophila epilines are shown. . © Elisa Cavalli Télécharger le communiqué de presse : Notes : Références : Consulter le site web. Les révolutions biotech : 1/ CRISPR-Cas9 (partie 1) - Transhumanisme : Association Française Transhumaniste. “Les révolutions biotech” est une suite d’articles qui souhaitent redécouvrir les grandes découvertes du domaine des biotechnologies et étudier leurs avancées à l’heure actuelle. S’il est bien une science du domaine des biotechnologies qui aujourd’hui est en pleine révolution, il s’agit de la génétique.

La génétique est littéralement l’étude de nos gènes, c’est-à-dire une partie de l’information que contient notre ADN. On parle maintenant de génomique, qui est l’étude du génome et pas seulement de gènes isolés. À la clé, comprendre comment fonctionne notre ADN pourrait nous permettre de le contrôler. La génétique est une science assez jeune. Si vous suivez l’actualité des biotechnologies, vous avez forcément entendu parler de la révolution CRIPSR-Cas 9. Un mécanisme révolutionnaire d’origine naturelle La technique CRISPR-Cas9 peut paraitre complexe à comprendre. Les CRISPR sont des portions singulières de l’ADN des bactéries. S’inspirer de la nature pour améliorer la technique Sources. Microbiome Science Could Bring a Revolution in Medical Care. The human body is made up of roughly 10 trillion cells. That's a huge number, but it's dwarfed by the 40 trillion or so bacterial cells that live on and inside the body.

In recent years, scientists have learned that our bacteria — known collectively as the microbiome — are intimately involved with many aspects of our health, including the robustness of our immune system and our risk of developing asthma and allergies. Now, new research suggests that the microbiome may also play a key role in neurological and psychological disorders. Related: The Quest to Create Artificial Blood May Soon Be Over "At a basic neuroscience level, all the key mechanisms of the brain have been shown to be regulated by the microbiome," says John Cryan, a neuroscientist at University College Cork in Ireland.

As scientists investigate how the microbiome impacts our bodies and minds, some experts envision fundamental changes in the way doctors diagnose and treat disease. Breakthroughs in Bacteria Out of Balance.

Anti-aging & longevity

Organ regeneration. Extinct species. Microbiote. Qu'est-ce que la bioinformatique ? Super organisms. How the Hidden Mathematics of Living Cells Could Help Us Decipher the Brain. Given how much they can actually do, computers have a surprisingly simple basis. Indeed, the logic they use has worked so well that we have even started to think of them as analogous to the human brain. Current computers basically use two basic values — 0 (false) and 1 (true) — and apply simple operations like “and”, “or” and “not” to compute with them.

These operations can be combined and scaled up to represent virtually any computation. This “binary "or "Boolean” logic was introduced by George Boole in 1854 to describe what he called “the laws of thought.” So will we ever be able to model something as complex as the human brain using computers? Living organisms do not live in a world of zeroes and ones. Helpful SNAGs There are infinitely many kinds of SNAGs. The smallest SNAG — A5 — describes the symmetries of two beautiful 3D shapes known since the time of the ancient Greeks: the icosahedron (made of 20 triangles) and the dodecahedron (made of 12 pentagons). Symmetries in nature. Uk.businessinsider. Theoretical physicists have confirmed that it's not just the information coded into our DNA that shapes who we are - it's also the way DNA folds itself that controls which genes are expressed inside our bodies.

That's something biologists have known for years, and they've even been able to figure out some of the proteins responsible for folding up DNA. But now a group of physicists have been able to demonstrate for the first time through simulations how this hidden information controls our evolution. Let's back up for a second here, because although it's not necessarily news to many scientists, this second level of DNA information might not be something you're familiar with. As you probably learnt in high school, Watson and Crick discovered in 1953 the double helix structure of DNA. Since then we've learnt that the DNA code that determines who we are is made up of a sequence of the letters G, A, C, and T. The order of these letters determines which proteins are made in our cells. Quelle éthique pour les ciseaux génétiques. En permettant de modifier l’ADN avec une facilité déconcertante, les outils d’ingénierie génomique comme CRISPR-Cas9 ouvrent la voie à des questionnements éthiques et législatifs complexes.

Un article à relire à l'occasion du prix Nobel de chimie 2020 attribué à Emmanuelle Charpentier et Jennifer Doudna. Peut-on toucher au génome humain ? La question ne cesse d’être posée depuis les années 1990 avec l’arrivée des thérapies géniques. Pourtant, elle est en passe de prendre aujourd’hui une dimension totalement nouvelle, avec l’émergence, en 2013, de l’édition génomique. Les outils TALEN1, ZFN2 et bien sûr CRISPR-Cas9 permettent de couper, à la base près, des séquences d’ADN choisies. Grâce à cette chirurgie du génome, il ­devient possible d’inactiver ou de supprimer n’importe quel gène, voire de le remplacer par un autre.

Parmi ces trois outils d’ingénierie génomique, CRISPR est roi. Une technique au succès fulgurant Crispations autour de la modification d’embryons OGM ? There's A Second Layer Of Information In DNA. The way A, T, G, and C are arranged in the DNA double helix determines how proteins are produced in the body of multi-celled organisms like us. And now, physicists have confirmed that there’s a second layer of information in DNA. In addition to the genetic information, we’re also determined by the mechanical properties of DNA. The findings are published in PLOS ONE this week. Those same four letters are found in all our different cells within all our different organs. Since the 1980s, researchers have proposed that a second layer of information sits atop the genetic code: mechanical cues that determine how the information is folded. According to that theory, this folding is determined by mechanical information written into DNA molecules.

Two layers of information also means that genetic mutations would have two effects: The letter sequence that codes for specific proteins can change, or the way DNA is folded can change. Researchers Take Steps Towards Developing A "Universal" Vaccine To Cure All Cancers. As wonder drugs go, the idea of a single medicine that can cure literally all types of cancer has got to be right up there in the “too good to be true” bracket. And while such a panacea may still be a little way off, a team of researchers from Johannes Gutenberg University in Germany have taken a significant step in that direction.

Detailing their research in the journal Nature, the study authors explain how they managed to coax the immune system of mice into attacking and destroying a wide variety of cancer types. Very low doses of the treatment were then used on three human patients in order to test how well it is tolerated by patients. All three participants reacted well to the vaccine, experiencing slight flu-like symptoms that pale in comparison to the horrible side-effects normally associated with chemotherapy. The treatment is the latest in a line of immunotherapy techniques that are currently being developed to fight cancer by recruiting the body’s own immune system. ?articles. At a workshop held at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) last September on the role of human microbiota in infectious disease, I was disheartened not to hear a single talk on the fungal community—the mycobiome.

Disheartened, but not surprised. Ignoring the fungal kingdom is nothing new. More than five years ago, my colleague and I tried to draw attention to this issue in a letter published in Microbe, recommending that the Human Microbiome Project should investigate not just people’s bacterial inhabitants, but the fungal and viral commensal communities as well. While research on the human virome has increased in recent years, the scientific community has not heeded our advice with regard to the fungal components of the microbiome. Despite this lack of attention, a handful of recent studies point to the importance of our commensal fungal inhabitants as critical players in human health and disease. Characterization of the human mycobiome Fungi and disease References J.A.

How Much Does Genetics Really Affect Your Fitness? Scientists Have Genetically Engineered Micropigs To Sell As Pets. A Chinese institute known for its breakthrough in genomic sequencing is now using its pioneering gene-editing technique to create and sell micropigs as pets. A portly pig will now weigh the same as a medium-sized dog – a mere 15 kilograms (33 pounds) in weight. BGI, the genomics institute planning to sell these puny pigs, claims the money will be reinvested into research. While micropigs as pets are not new on the market, those that have been gene-edited are. Previous mini-pigs, often called “teacup pigs,” are bred for their pint-sized traits, either through the breeding of runts or for the dwarfism gene.

In this case, however, scientists shrunk the swines by using enzymes known as TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) to disable one of their two growth hormone receptor genes. After gene-editing male fetal cells, the scientists then bred the stunted males with normal female pigs. As a result, only half their offspring were micropigs. Image Credit: A "teacup pig. " Study reveals the genetic start-up of a human embryo -- ScienceDaily. An international team of scientists led from Sweden's Karolinska Institutet has for the first time mapped all the genes that are activated in the first few days of a fertilized human egg. The study, which is being published in the journal Nature Communications, provides an in-depth understanding of early embryonic development in human -- and scientists now hope that the results will help finding for example new therapies against infertility.

At the start of an individual's life there is a single fertilized egg cell. One day after fertilization there are two cells, after two days four, after three days eight and so on, until there are billions of cells at birth. The order in which our genes are activated after fertilization has remained one of the last uncharted territories of human development.

There are approximately 23,000 human genes in total. "These genes are the 'ignition key' that is needed to turn on human embryonic development. Stem Cells. ?articles. WIKIMEDIA, LUCASMCORSOScientists have been searching for chemicals or conditions that can stimulate the activity of energy-burning brown fat as a potential means of treating obesity. Adult humans, unlike babies and some animals, don’t have too much brown fat to work with, however. Now, researchers in Texas have found that humans—victims of extreme burn trauma, in particular—can actually convert white fat into brown fat, a phenomenon previously witnessed only in animals and in vitro models. “We think in these patients who have lost much of their skin, which normally helps keep us warm, white fat is turning into brown fat in an effort to increase the ability of the body to produce heat,” Labros Sidossis, a researcher at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston who led the study, published in Cell Metabolism August 4, told Science.

Sidossis and his colleauges studied 42 severely burned children and six adult burn patients. Smartphone-Sized Genetic Sequencer Transcribes Entire Bacterial Genome - Singularity HUB. Eating Human Brains Drove Evolution In Remote Tribe. Beyond genes: are centrioles carriers of biological information? Neurons Busily Rewrite Their DNA NonstopTrending | Labroots | Virtual Events, Webinars and Videos. BioVisions.

News Highlights:CRISPR-Edited Human Embryos Raise Ruckus. Scientists Convert Cancer Cells Into Harmless Immune Cells. Xeroxed gene may have paved the way for large human brain. Outer Envelope of Flu Virus Simulated for the First Time. Des scientifiques ont trouvé un moyen de ''décuire'' un oeuf dur. Illumina_sequencing_introduction.pdf. Binge Drinking Effects Your Immune System Immediately. World First: Scientists Observe DNA Shuttling Between Cells, Triggering Tumor Growth. News Highlights:Most Cancers Due to Bad Luck, Not Heredity or Lifestyle. Bioinfo_Excel. Drugs from where?! Female genitals may be source of uniquely effective antibiotic. Endurance Training Influences Gene Expression In Muscles. A Lab In South Korea Will Clone Your Dog For $100,000. MIT: Synthetic DNA Can Be Used as Ink for Nanoscale 3D Printers.

Scientists Edge Closer To Stem Cell Therapy For Parkinson's. Stephen Friend: The hunt for "unexpected genetic heroes" Scientists Make DNA Wires That Carry Electric Current. Scientists Identify Genes Associated With Violent Crime. Activating Body’s Brown Fat Could Lead To New Weight Loss Method. Drew Berry: Animations of unseeable biology. 10 créatures presque invincibles! - Science Virale. News Highlights:Human Stem Cell Clock Reset to Zero. Scientists Discover New Mechanism of Gene Regulation.

APOB, a gene involved in lipid transport, linked to cases of familial extreme longevity -- ScienceDaily. Top five myths about genetic modification. Top 10 Innovations 2013. On best practices in the development of bioinformatics software | Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. What You Need To Know About Genetically Modified Organisms. Les portables pourraient prédire les épidémies d’Ebola. News Highlights:Mapping Cell Fate Conversion via CellNet, a Network Biology Tool. Tiniest Insect Genome Sequenced. One Injection Reverses Diabetes Symptoms Without Side Effects. Biological Pacemaker Developed Using Gene Therapy. Friends Resemble Each Other Genetically.

Friends share similar DNA, study finds. Researchers Develop A Novel Method To Produce Blood Cells From Stem Cells. Designer Babies – Like It Or Not, Here They Come. Genes Play An Important Role In Shaping Chimp Intelligence. DNA Scissors Can Perform Surgery On Your Genes. A Man Was Cured Of HIV In 2008, And Hardly Anyone Knows About It. No Pain, Big Gain. Organ-on-a-Chip Advance Goes to the Very Marrow. The triumph of genomic medicine is just beginning.

Semi-synthetic organism: Scientists create first living organism that transmits added letters in DNA 'alphabet' Des chercheurs découvrent deux virus géants. Hécatombes de microbiologistes depuis 2001 !!!!! First comprehensive atlas of human gene activity released | HSPH News. Sommes-nous des mutants ? Steal My Sunshine. TeselaGen Is Building A Platform For Rapid Prototyping in Synthetic Biology. Voulez-vous savoir quand vous allez mourir. RNA World 2.0. New School. Plants "Communicate" Using Molecular Language.