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Cognitive Enhancers

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Cognitive Chaos. ThesisBrain Activiy can be modelled as a fractal topology interfacing both random and determined forces.

Cognitive Chaos

Consciousness can be presented as a set of strange attractors (patterns of chaos) around which specific neuronal activity organizes itself. These n-dimensional attractors are produced with theorems derived from a synthesis of work by Mandelbrot and Cantor. By attaining a thorough intuitive and technical grasp of the actual shapes of the attractors (although they are ultimately indeterminate) one can ride the chaos like a lucid dreamer learns to contain and direct the process of REM sleep. From Ong's Hat, Gateway to the Dimensionsd e o x y r i b o n u c l e i c h y p e r d i m e n s i o n.

Butorphanol. Butorphanol (AAN, BAN, INN and USAN) is a morphinan-type synthetic opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers.[1] Brand name Stadol was recently discontinued by the manufacturer.


It is now only available in its generic formulations, manufactured by Novex, Mylan, Apotex and Ben Venue Laboratories. Butorphanol is most closely structurally related to levorphanol. Κ-opioid receptor. Distribution[edit]

κ-opioid receptor

Monoamine neurotransmitter. Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (-CH2-CH2-).

Monoamine neurotransmitter

All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes. Monoaminergic systems, i.e., the networks of neurons that utilize monoamine neurotransmitters, are involved in the regulation of cognitive processes such as emotion, arousal, and certain types of memory. Agonist. Agonists activating hypothetical receptors.


Efficacy spectrum of receptor ligands. Types of agonists[edit] An endogenous agonist for a particular receptor is a compound naturally produced by the body that binds to and activates that receptor. Norepinephrine. Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the human brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.


The name "noradrenaline," derived from Latin roots meaning "at/alongside the kidneys," is more commonly used in the United Kingdom; in the United States, "norepinephrine," derived from Greek roots having that same meaning, is usually preferred.[1] "Norepinephrine" is also the International Nonproprietary Name given to the compound.[2] Regardless of which name is used for the substance itself, parts of the body that produce or are affected by it are referred to as noradrenergic.

The general function of norepinephrine is to mobilize the brain and body for action. Epinephrine. Epinephrine, also known as adrenalin or adrenaline, is primarily a medication and hormone.[3][4] As a medication it is used for a number of conditions including: anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, and superficial bleeding.[1] Inhaled epinephrine may be used to improve the symptoms of croup.[5] It may also be used for asthma when other treatments are not effective.


It is given intravenously, by injection into a muscle, by inhalation, or by injection just under the skin.[1] Common side effects include shakiness, anxiety, and sweating. A fast heart rate and high blood pressure may occur. Occasionally it may result in an abnormal heart rhythm. While the safety of its use during pregnancy and breastfeeding is unclear, the benefits to the mother must be taken into account.[1]

Dopamine agonist. A dopamine agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors in the absence of that receptor's physiological ligand, the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Dopamine agonist

Dopamine agonists activate signaling pathways through the dopamine receptor and trimeric G-proteins, ultimately leading to changes in gene transcription. Uses[edit] More examples are found in main articles of DA examples Some medical drugs act as dopamine agonists and can treat hypodopaminergic (low dopamine) conditions; they are typically used for treating Parkinson's disease, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (in the form of stimulants) and certain pituitary tumors (prolactinoma), and may be useful for restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Wakefulness-promoting agent. The prototypical eugeroic is modafinil, and other drugs include adrafinil and armodafinil.

Wakefulness-promoting agent

Modafinil and armodafinil have been found to act as selective, weak, atypical dopamine reuptake inhibitors.[2][3] Adrafinil is a prodrug of modafinil, and hence also acts in this way. The functional opposites of wakefulness-promoting agents are hypnotics, such as centrally-acting antihistamines (H1 receptor antagonists) and suvorexant, an orexin receptor antagonist. Examples[edit] Modafinil. Modafinil (INN, USAN, BAN, JAN) is a wakefulness-promoting agent (or eugeroic) used for treatment of disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea.[7] It has also seen widespread off-label use as a purported cognition-enhancing agent.


In English-speaking countries it is sold under the brand names Alertec, Modavigil, and Provigil. In the United States modafinil is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance and restricted in availability and usage, due to concerns about possible addiction potential. In most other countries it is a prescription drug but not otherwise legally restricted. Armodafinil. Armodafinil (trade name Nuvigil) is the enantiopure of the wakefulness-promoting agent,[1] or eugeroic, modafinil (Provigil).

It consists of just the (−)-(R)-enantiomer of the racemic modafinil. Armodafinil is produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc.[2] and was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2007.[3][4] Although they have similar half-lives, armodafinil reaches its peak concentration in the blood later after administration than modafinil does, which may make it more effective at improving wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness.[5] Medical uses[edit] Desipramine.

Desipramine (also known as desmethylimipramine) is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). It inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and to a minor extent serotonin. It is used to treat depression, but not considered a first line treatment since the introduction of SSRI antidepressants. Desipramine is an active metabolite of imipramine. L-DOPA. Medical use[edit] In addition, L-DOPA, co-administered with a peripheral DDCI, has been investigated as a potential treatment for restless leg syndrome. However, studies have demonstrated "no clear picture of reduced symptoms".[8] The two types of response seen with administration of L-DOPA are:

Amitriptyline. Methylphenidate. Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy.

The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Prescribed to patients beginning in 1960, the drug became heavily prescribed in the 1990s, when the diagnosis of ADHD itself became more widely accepted.[1][2] Trimipramine. Piracetam. Piracetam (sold under many brand names) is a nootropic drug in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It shares the same 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base structure with pyroglutamic acid. Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA. Pramiracetam. Pramiracetam is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs.

Donepezil. Theanine. NSI-189.


The ups and downs of cognitive enhancers.