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Occam's razor

Occam's razor
The sun, moon and other solar system planets can be described as revolving around the Earth. However that explanation's ideological and complex assumptions are completely unfounded compared to the modern consensus that all solar system planets revolve around the Sun. Ockham's razor (also written as Occam's razor and in Latin lex parsimoniae) is a principle of parsimony, economy, or succinctness used in problem-solving devised by William of Ockham (c. 1287 - 1347). It states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected. Solomonoff's theory of inductive inference is a mathematically formalized Occam's Razor:[2][3][4][5][6][7] shorter computable theories have more weight when calculating the probability of the next observation, using all computable theories which perfectly describe previous observations. History[edit] Formulations before Ockham[edit] Ockham[edit] Later formulations[edit] Justifications[edit] Aesthetic[edit] Empirical[edit] Related:  Scientific Method

Reproducibility Aristotle′s conception about the knowledge of the individual being considered unscientific is due to lack of the field of statistics in his time, so he could not appeal to statistical averaging of the individual. History[edit] Boyle's air pump was, in terms of the 17th Century, a complicated and expensive scientific apparatus, making reproducibility of results difficult The first to stress the importance of reproducibility in science was the Irish chemist Robert Boyle, in England in the 17th century. The air pump, which in the 17th century was a complicated and expensive apparatus to build, also led to one of the first documented disputes over the reproducibility of a particular scientific phenomenon. Reproducible data[edit] Reproducibility is one component of the precision of a measurement or test method. Reproducibility is determined from controlled interlaboratory test programs or a Measurement systems analysis.[6][7] Reproducible research[edit] Noteworthy irreproducible results[edit]

Corriger le chien par l'extinction du comportement - Comment corriger son chien ? Cette technique doit être appliquée de manière méthodique et systématique. Elle réclame de plus un engagement important de la part du maître, qui doit être très motivé . Cette technique repose sur un principe simple : tout comportement qui n’est pas récompensé, ou puni, est destiné à disparaître automatiquement. Animalerie En théorie, le mécanisme est clair mais, en réalité, il est plutôt compliqué à mettre en pratique. Certains comportements gratifient doublement notre fidèle compagnon : par le plaisir qu’il éprouve en les adoptant et par l’attention qu’il reçoit de son maître. Le chien recommencera donc à se comporter de la même façon pour obtenir à nouveau l’attention de son maître, même lorsque la motivation principale (le changement de dents) n’existera plus. Lorsque l’on utilise la technique de l’extinction, il ne faut pas oublier que des inconvénients peuvent apparaître : 1. Franco Fassola Docteur vétérinaire spécialiste des animaux de petite taille dont les NAC

Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy has been a major influence in the development of 20th-century philosophy, especially existentialism and postmodernism. Kierkegaard was a 19th-century Danish philosopher who has been called the "Father of Existentialism".[1] His philosophy also influenced the development of existential psychology.[2] Kierkegaard criticized aspects of the philosophical systems that were brought on by philosophers such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel before him and the Danish Hegelians. He was also indirectly influenced by the philosophy of Immanuel Kant.[3] He measured himself against the model of philosophy which he found in Socrates, which aims to draw one's attention not to explanatory systems, but rather to the issue of how one exists.[4] One of Kierkegaard's recurrent themes is the importance of subjectivity, which has to do with the way people relate themselves to (objective) truths. Note on pseudonyms[edit] Themes in his philosophy[edit] Alienation[edit] Death[edit]

Beautiful Word Clouds Russell's teapot Russell's teapot, sometimes called the celestial teapot or cosmic teapot, is an analogy first coined by the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872–1970) to illustrate that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon a person making scientifically unfalsifiable claims rather than shifting the burden of proof to others, specifically in the case of religion. Russell wrote that if he claims that a teapot orbits the Sun somewhere in space between the Earth and Mars, it is nonsensical for him to expect others to believe him on the grounds that they cannot prove him wrong. Russell's teapot is still referred to in discussions concerning the existence of God. Origins of the analogy[edit] In an article titled "Is There a God?" In 1958, Russell elaborated on the analogy as a reason for his own atheism: I ought to call myself an agnostic; but, for all practical purposes, I am an atheist. The burden of proof argument[edit] Other thinkers have posited similar analogies. Analysis[edit] Objections[edit]

Theory choice A main problem in the philosophy of science in the early 20th century, and under the impact of the new and controversial theories of relativity and quantum physics, came to involve how scientists should choose between competing theories. The classical answer would be to select the theory which was best verified, against which Karl Popper argued that competing theories should be subjected to comparative tests and the one chosen which survived the tests. If two theories could not, for practical reasons, be tested one should prefer the one with the highest degree of empirical content, said Popper in The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Mathematician and physicist Henri Poincaré instead, like many others, proposed simplicity as a criterion.[1] One should choose the mathematically simplest or most elegant approach. Popper's solution was subsequently criticized by Thomas S.

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They're Made out of Meat by Terry Bisson "So ... what does the thinking?" "You're not understanding, are you? You're refusing to deal with what I'm telling you. The brain does the thinking. The meat." "Thinking meat! "Yes, thinking meat! "Omigod. "Thank you. "Omigod. "First it wants to talk to us. "We're supposed to talk to meat." "That's the idea. "They actually do talk, then. "Oh, yes. "I thought you just told me they used radio." "They do, but what do you think is on the radio? "Omigod. "Officially or unofficially?" "Both." "Officially, we are required to contact, welcome and log in any and all sentient races or multibeings in this quadrant of the Universe, without prejudice, fear or favor. "I was hoping you would say that." "It seems harsh, but there is a limit. "I agree one hundred percent. "Just one. "So we just pretend there's no one home in the Universe." "That's it." "Cruel. "They'll be considered crackpots if they do. "A dream to meat! "And we marked the entire sector unoccupied." "Good. "They always come around." the end


Entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity. All things being equal, the simplest solution tends to be the right one. by raviii Feb 18