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Scientific method

Scientific method
Diagram illustrating steps in the scientific method. The scientific method is an ongoing process, which usually begins with observations about the natural world. Human beings are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear and often develop ideas (hypotheses) about why things are the way they are. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways, including making further observations about nature. In general, the strongest tests of hypotheses come from carefully controlled and replicated experiments that gather empirical data. Depending on how well the tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, alteration, expansion or even rejection. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, identifiable features are frequently shared in common between them. Overview The DNA example below is a synopsis of this method Process Formulation of a question Hypothesis Prediction Testing 1. Related:  Meta-Science (Philosophy of Science)

philosophy bites Thought experiment A thought experiment or Gedankenexperiment (from German) considers some hypothesis, theory,[1] or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences. Given the structure of the experiment, it may or may not be possible to actually perform it, and if it can be performed, there need be no intention of any kind to actually perform the experiment in question. The common goal of a thought experiment is to explore the potential consequences of the principle in question: "A thought experiment is a device with which one performs an intentional, structured process of intellectual deliberation in order to speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about potential consequents (or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or consequent)" (Yeates, 2004, p. 150). Overview[edit] Salviati. Although the extract does not convey the elegance and power of the 'demonstration' terribly well, it is clear that it is a 'thought' experiment, rather than a practical one. Variety[edit] Uses[edit]

Hypothesis A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.[1] The adjective hypothetical, meaning "having the nature of a hypothesis", or "being assumed to exist as an immediate consequence of a hypothesis", can refer to any of these meanings of the term "hypothesis". Uses[edit] In Plato's Meno (86e–87b), Socrates dissects virtue with a method used by mathematicians,[2] that of "investigating from a hypothesis Scientific hypothesis[edit] Working hypothesis[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit]

: > 메트릭스를 포스트모던 시각으로 다시본다 : 문화.스포츠 : 하니리포터 내가 제일 싫어하는 글쓰기를 해 볼까... 한다. 나불나불,... 메트릭스를 생각하면..늘 기억나는 한 분이 있다. 영화적 기술의 극치를 보여준 메트릭스지만..사실 그 철학적인 느낌은 영화 내에서 어렵지 않게 발견 할 수 있다... 혹자는... 포스트 모던에 있어서..Virtual Reality는 중요한 요소중 하나다..바로 메트릭스의 컴퓨터 세상이.. 대다수의 우리는 ... 모더니즘이 표방한... 반면...Mr. 그는 커다란 세상을 바라보기에 앞서.. 그 해답을 찾기 위해 Mr, Anderson은..MORPHEUS를 만나고, 선택의 갈림길에 놓이게 된다.. 그가 처음 바라본 세상은...스스로 자라나는 것이 아닌.. NEO - Morpheus, what's happened to me? 말을 살짝 바꾸긴 했지만.. 그 말처럼... 구석 구석, 요소 요소에 들어가 있는..포스트 모던 사상들은 결국 결말에 가서... [아는 것과, 실천 하는 것은 다름]을 누차 이야기 하는 모피어스의 그간의 말에서 처럼... 단지 이 영화에서 아쉬움으로 남는것은...이 영화를 포스트 모던적 시선으로만 바라 보았을때...또 다른 [영웅]의 탄생을 어떻게 지켜 봐야 하는가..라는 점에 있다..이렇게 된다면 다시금 [Grandnarrative]의 모순 속으로 빠져 들어 가는게 아닌가.. 삼천포로 빠지자면..암것두 모르면서 나불거린것에 있어서..창피함은 이루 말 할 수 없지만..더 웃긴건 포스트 모던두 제대로 이해 못하고 있는 내가..허무주의[nihilism]에 빠지려고 한다는 점이다..좋게 말하면 그런 무슨 ism에 빠졌다 할 수 있구..솔직하게 말하자면..이것 저것 다 귀찮은 거 뿐일런지도 모른다.. 내가 가야 할 길은 어디며...

Biometry details - AC What to do before attending You will either be attending the entire course or selected modules/topics, depending on who you are. Before attending the modules, you need to download and print the handouts for the particular days. Because the number of people attending varies widely from day to day, it's difficult for us to bring copies without wasting large amounts of paper, or running very short. Assessment Some of you will sit an exam, as indicated in the table below. Older Background Material Note that newer material is available through the on-line learning systems at Melbourne and Deakin. It's assumed that you have an understanding of basic statistics. Lecture Handouts NB: Download these files just before the relevant session, to be sure you have the current version of the handout. Lecture handouts are ready for you to download, print, and bring along to the relevant days. Module 1 (16-17July) Module 2 (18th and 19th July) Module 3 (25th and 26th July) Tutorials/Worksheets Tutorial Material

Saint, Peace Seeker, Hero by Turns HODAL, India — Barreling down a sizzling-hot road, in a cloud of diesel fumes and dust, Ludkan Baba is on a serious roll. He lies flat on the ground, turning himself over and over like a runaway log, limbs flailing as he bumps across potholes, splashes through mud puddles and falls deeper into a spiritual trance. Like any sadhu, or Hindu ascetic, he undertakes severe penance to liberate his soul from reincarnation's endless cycle of birth, death and rebirth. Stretched out in the middle of the road, rolling hour after hour, mile after mile through crowds and heavy traffic, he is making his trip to eternal bliss. But this is no ordinary holy roller. He has rolled thousands of miles in the last 19 years, turning round and round so many millions of times that just pondering the thought can make your head spin. Yet to the 55-year-old sadhu, the constant turning is refreshing. "I move during cyclones, during blazing summers and cold winters," he said. He believes God's hand propels him.

Occam's razor The sun, moon and other solar system planets can be described as revolving around the Earth. However that explanation's ideological and complex assumptions are completely unfounded compared to the modern consensus that all solar system planets revolve around the Sun. Ockham's razor (also written as Occam's razor and in Latin lex parsimoniae) is a principle of parsimony, economy, or succinctness used in problem-solving devised by William of Ockham (c. 1287 - 1347). Solomonoff's theory of inductive inference is a mathematically formalized Occam's Razor:[2][3][4][5][6][7] shorter computable theories have more weight when calculating the probability of the next observation, using all computable theories which perfectly describe previous observations. History[edit] Formulations before Ockham[edit] Part of a page from Duns Scotus' book Ordinatio: "Pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate", i.e., "Plurality is not to be posited without necessity" Ockham[edit] Later formulations[edit]

Forming Research Questions and Identifying Key Concepts View Worksheet After you have chosen a research paper topic, developing research questions and identifying key concepts helps you write a strong thesis statement and conduct structured research. Jumping into your topic without asking the right questions and developing a plan hurts the overall strength of your paper. In addition, by developing questions and identifying concepts, you make it easier to determine what information you need and how that information pertains to the scope of your research paper. Forming research questions to shape your thesis statement Forming research questions is essential in writing an effective thesis statement. I need to locate information about the types of homeopathic stress relievers.I need to locate information about the effects of video game violence on children aged 7-10.I need to locate information about the causes of childhood obesity.I need to locate information about childhood immunizations.

시뮬라크르 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전. 시늉, 흉내, 모의 등의 뜻을 지니는 시뮬라크르는 가상, 거짓 그림 등의 뜻을 가진 라틴어 시뮬라크룸에서 유래한 말이다. 이 라틴어 단어는 영어 안에도 그대로 흡수되어서 모조품, 가짜 물건을 가리키는 말로 쓰인다. 정의[편집] 시뮬라크르 Simulacre[편집] 시뮬라크르는 실제로는 존재하지 않는 대상을 존재하는 것처럼 만들어놓은 인공물을 지칭한다. 미사일 발사는 화면이라는 컴퓨터로 보면서 하지 실제 미사일의 움직임을 육안으로 보면서 하지 않는다. 결국 시뮬라크르는 실제보다 더 실제적인 것이며 시뮬라크르는 아울러 어떤 기왕의 실체 존재하고 있는 것하고는 아무런 관계도 없는 독자적인 하나의 현실이라고 할 것이다. 시뮬라시옹 simulation[편집] 시뮬라시옹은 시뮬라크르의 동사적 의미로 <시뮬라크르를 하기>이다. 시뮬라크르의 철학적 역사[편집] 시뮬라크르를 논하기 위해서는 플라톤에게까지 거슬러 올라가야 한다. 플라톤[편집] 이데아[편집] 이데아는 현실에서 발견할 수 없는 영원불변의 참된 존재로써 플라톤의 이데아에 의하면 우리가 일상에서 접하는 모든 것들은 죄다 불완전한 것들이다. 동굴의 비유[편집] 플라톤은 진정한 이데아를 알지 못한 채 살아가는 사람들을 이데아계로의 지향을 이끌며 동굴의 비유(동굴의 알레고리, 신화, 우화 등으로 불림)를 이야기하였다. 니체[편집] 우상의 황혼 Twilight of the idols[편집] 니체는 대부분의 철학자들이 그들의 감각으로부터 얻는 확실한 정보를 무시하고 언어와 사유의 구조에 의존함으로써 도달하는 현실의 왜곡된 복제가 시뮬라크르(이 용어를 사용하지는 않았지만) 라고 시뮬라크르의 개념에 대해서 언급하였다. 플라톤의 동굴의 비유에 대한 의문 제기[편집] 장 보드리야르[편집] 책 《시뮬라크르와 시뮬라시옹》[편집] 영화 Matrix[편집] 영화 매트릭스는 1999년 워쇼스키 형제가 감독한 사이버 펑크 영화로 화려한 액션신 이외에도 철학적인 논의를 활발하게 하였던 작품이다. 질 들뢰즈[편집] 복사물과 시뮬라크르[편집]

Meta-analysis In statistics, meta-analysis comprises statistical methods for contrasting and combining results from different studies, in the hope of identifying patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results, or other interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of multiple studies.[1] Meta-analysis can be thought of as "conducting research about previous research." In its simplest form, meta-analysis is done by identifying a common statistical measure that is shared between studies, such as effect size or p-value, and calculating a weighted average of that common measure. This weighting is usually related to the sample sizes of the individual studies, although it can also include other factors, such as study quality. The motivation of a meta-analysis is to aggregate information in order to achieve a higher statistical power for the measure of interest, as opposed to a less precise measure derived from a single study. History[edit] Advantages[edit] [edit]

Critical thinking | Learning resources Advice and resources on the subject of critical thinking. Why is being critical important? It affects your academic success: if you wish to achieve higher grades, being able to take an informed and analytical approach to your studies is very important. Simply memorising and explaining concepts and ideas will not be sufficient for a strong pass at masters level. It affects your employability: one of the main reasons students undertake postgraduate study is to improve their employment prospects. What do we mean by ‘critical’? Being ‘critical’ does not mean just being negative, or pointing out what is wrong about something. You can find out more about the framework at : SCQF level descriptors (PDF) Taking a critical approach in your studies and professional development can include behaviours such as: You can find out more about being critical in your studies in the following factsheets: Critical thinking ‘stairway’ Critical thinking: online guidance from the Open University Further reading

Models of scientific inquiry In the philosophy of science, models of scientific inquiry have two functions: first, to provide a descriptive account of how scientific inquiry is carried out in practice, and second, to provide an explanatory account of why scientific inquiry succeeds as well as it appears to do in arriving at genuine knowledge. The search for scientific knowledge extends far back into antiquity. At some point in the past, at least by the time of Aristotle, philosophers recognized that a fundamental distinction should be drawn between two kinds of scientific knowledge — roughly, knowledge that and knowledge why. It is one thing to know that each planet periodically reverses the direction of its motion with respect to the background of fixed stars; it is quite a different matter to know why. Accounts of scientific inquiry[edit] Classical model[edit] Pragmatic model[edit] Logical empiricism[edit] Not all explanations in science are of the D-N type, however. Choice of a theory[edit] See also[edit]

Philosophy of science Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions concern what counts as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. While the relevant history of philosophy dates back at least to Aristotle, philosophy of science emerged as a distinct discipline only in the middle of the 20th century in the wake of logical positivism, a movement that aimed to formulate criteria to ensure all philosophical statements' meaningfulness and objectively assess them. Today, some thinkers seek to ground science in axiomatic assumptions such as the uniformity of nature. Introduction[edit] Defining science[edit] Karl Popper c. 1980s Distinguishing between science and non-science is referred to as the demarcation problem. Scientific explanation[edit]

The Deconstruction of Reality: Modernism and Postmodernism by Ken Sanes Modernism Modern philosophy and science are based on the idea that the world of appearances is an illusion that both reveals and conceals an underlying reality. In many instances, this idea has also been attached to mystical systems of thought, as in some Eastern philosophies that view reality as a play of fictions manifested by a universal mind. In the West, it has been the intellectual undergirding for rationalism and empiricism, which have given rise to modern science and social science. Today, not surprisingly, this idea is the dominant element in most fields of thought. In the natural sciences, physics views the materiality of the world as a kind of mirage and describes microscopic and macroscopic realms in which nature loses many of the characteristics it has in the Newtonian world of everyday existence. In effect, these philosophies and disciplines assert that matter, life, society, cultural creations and mind aren't what they appear to be. Postmodernism One note.

scientific method is the best method we have - if you can manage to do it, you've really got a convincing argument by raviii Feb 18

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