History - Europe - Northern
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This article is about the history of the areas comprising modern-day Iceland . [ edit ] Early history
The land area that now makes up Finland was probably settled immediately after the last ice age , which ended c. 9000 BC. Most of the region was a part of the Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century to 1809, when the vast majority of the Finnish-speaking areas of Sweden were ceded to the Russian Empire (excluding the Finnish-speaking areas of the modern-day Northern Sweden), making this area the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland . The Lutheran religion dominated.
The history of Denmark dates back about 12,000 years, to the end of the last ice age , with the earliest evidence of human inhabitation. The Danes were first documented in written sources around 500 AD, including in the writings of Jordanes and Procopius . With the Christianization of the Danes c. 960 AD, it is clear that there existed a kingship in Scandinavia which controlled roughly the current Danish territory.
Norway was first settled in 12,000 BC and the Neolithic period started 4000 BC.
The former Swedish church in Gammalsvenskby. St John's Lutheran parish church has been rebuilt and serves as an Orthodox church today.
Though notorious for their fearsome Viking raids, Scandinavians were also farmers and craftsmen. Find out more about this complex society that began in Norway, Sweden and Denmark and spread to Iceland, Greenland, Russia, much of Europe and even the Americas. An index of maps depicting Scandinavia, in whole or in part.
Longships were sea vessels made and used by the Vikings from the Nordic countries for trade, commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age although scientific analysis of the oak timber shows at least one well known ship was built in Dublin, Ireland. The longship’s design evolved over many years, beginning in the Stone Age with the invention of the umiak and continuing up to the 9th century with the Nydam and Kvalsund ships. The longship appeared in its complete form between the 9th and 13th centuries.
The term Viking though used to denote ship-borne explorers, traders and warriors, is actually a verb describing the acts of the Danes who originated in Denmark and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century.
Germanic man represented on a Roman tryumphal relief, preserved at the Vatican Museums in Rome . The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age . [ 1 ]
The North Germanic languages or Scandinavian languages , the languages of Scandinavians , make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages , a sub-family of the Indo-European languages , along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages . The language group is sometimes referred to as the Nordic languages , a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish , Swedish and Norwegian scholars and laypeople.
The Church of Rome fell for its heresy; the gates of the second Rome, Constantinople, were hewn down by the axes of the infidel Turks; but the Church of Moscow, the Church of the New Rome, shines brighter than the sun in the whole universe...
The Ostrogoths ( Latin : Ostrogothi or Austrogothi ) were a branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths ). The Ostrogoths, under Theoderic the Great , established a kingdom in Italy in the late 5th and 6th centuries.
Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus , was a Roman statesman and writer, serving in the administration of Theoderic the Great , king of the Ostrogoths . Senator was part of his surname, not his rank.
One of the two chief tribes of the Goths, a Germanic people. Their traditions relate that the Goths originally lived on both sides of the Baltic Sea, in Scandinavia and on the Continent. Their oldest habitations recorded in history were situated on the right bank of the Vistula.
The eagles represented on these fibulae from the 6th century were a popular symbol among the Goths. Similar fibulae have been found in Visigothic graves in Spain. [ 1 ] ( The Walters Art Museum ) The Visigoths ( Latin : Visigothi , Wisigothi , Vesi , Visi , Wesi , or Wisi ) and Ostrogoths were branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths .