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Quantum technology is a new field of physics and engineering, which transitions some of the stranger features of quantum mechanics , especially quantum entanglement and most recently quantum tunneling , into practical applications such as quantum computing , quantum cryptography , quantum simulation, quantum metrology , quantum sensing , and quantum imaging . The field of quantum technology was first outlined in a 1997 book by Gerard J.
Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity). [ 1 ] For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production and medicine. [ 2 ] The term itself is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky . In the late 20th and early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics , recombinant gene technologies, applied immunology , and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests. [ 3 ] [ edit ] Various definitions of 'biotechnology'
Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to " nanotech ") is the manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology [ 1 ] [ 2 ] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology . A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative , which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers . This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter that occur below the given size threshold.
Programmable matter refers to matter which has the ability to change its physical properties (shape, density, moduli , conductivity, optical properties, etc.) in a programmable fashion, based upon user input or autonomous sensing. Programmable matter is thus linked to the concept of a material which inherently has the ability to perform information processing. [ edit ] History Programmable matter is a term originally coined in 1991 by Toffoli and Margolus to refer to an ensemble of fine-grained computing elements arranged in space ( Toffoli & Margolus 1991 ). Their paper describes a computing substrate that is composed of fine-grained compute nodes distributed throughout space which communicate using only nearest neighbor interactions.
Iordan Iovtchev at London 2012 Olympics . Source: NBC How sports like gymnastics might evolve in the low gravity environments of future space colonies is a topic that resurfaces every now and then, particularly during the Olympic Games. With space tourism on the horizon and companies, such as Bigelow Aerospace, discussing a lunar setting for an off-world hotel, the Moon beckons as a tempting locale for humanity s first space Olympics. Advantages of the Moon include its surface material, craters and accessible caves, and an equatorial surface gravity of 1.622 meters/sec 2 about 1/6 th that of Earth .
Quantum - String Theory
The multiverse (or meta-universe ) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including the historical universe we consistently experience) that together comprise everything that exists and can exist: the entirety of space , time , matter , and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them. The term was coined in 1895 by the American philosopher and psychologist William James . [ 1 ] The various universes within the multiverse are sometimes called parallel universes . The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationship between the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered. Multiple universes have been hypothesized in cosmology , physics , astronomy , religion , philosophy , transpersonal psychology and fiction , particularly in science fiction and fantasy .
Image: Chad Hagen Showcasing more than fifty of the most provocative, original, and significant online essays from 2011, The Best Science Writing Online 2012 will change the way... Read More »
Aug. 3, 2011 — The theory that our universe is contained inside a bubble, and that multiple alternative universes exist inside their own bubbles -- making up the 'multiverse' -- is, for the first time, being tested by physicists. Two research papers published in Physical Review Letters and Physical Review D are the first to detail how to search for signatures of other universes. Physicists are now searching for disk-like patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation -- relic heat radiation left over from the Big Bang -- which could provide tell-tale evidence of collisions between other universes and our own.
By Paul Halpern on November 27, 2012 2:10 PM |
Question: What Are the Types of Parallel Universes? Physicists talk about parallel universes, but it's not always clear what they mean.
Dark Universe / Transient Universe | Outer Solar System | Near Earth Objects | Milky Way | LSST Tour Dark Matter | Dark Energy | 3D mass Illustration of strong gravitaional lensing.
I don't know if it exactly fits in with the article, but I love the idea that members of the Faction Paradox hunt their own ancestors, eliminating their progenitors from the timeline, just to create a paradox and show how strong they (the Godfathers, Cousins, etc., of the Faction) are by continuing to exist. Also didn't the ITV series (maybe ATV?) 'Timeslip' toy with paradoxes (though it has been years since I've seen it, so I may be completely wrong). 9/16/11 10:59am <p style="text-align:right;color:#A8A8A8"></p>
Social Computing Research focuses on methods for harvesting the collective intelligence of groups of people in order to realize greater value from the interaction between users and information. Our research includes collective intelligence (“wisdom of the crowd”), incentive design for accessing resources, social networks and their implications for information dissemination and collective attention. We are creating new information services that dynamically respond to fluid content creation and consumption. Social Computing Research is the birthplace of HP ePrint and HP Gloe . Director: Bernardo A.
An artist's conception shows a terraformed Mars in four stages of development. Terraforming (literally, "Earth-shaping") of a planet , moon , or other body is the hypothetical process of deliberately modifying its atmosphere , temperature , surface topography or ecology to be similar to the biosphere of Earth , in order to make it habitable by humans . The term is sometimes used more generally as a synonym for planetary engineering , although some consider this more general usage an error. The concept of terraforming developed from both science fiction and actual science . The term was coined by Jack Williamson in a science-fiction story ("Collision Orbit") published during 1942 in Astounding Science Fiction , [ 1 ] but the concept may pre-date this work . Based on experiences with Earth, the environment of a planet can be altered deliberately; however, the feasibility of creating an unconstrained planetary biosphere that mimics Earth on another planet has yet to be verified.
Noogenesis ( Ancient Greek : νοῦς =mind + γένεσις =becoming) is the emergence of intelligent forms of life . The term was first used by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin in regard to the evolution of humans. It also used in astrobiology in regard to the emergence of forms of life capable of technology and so interstellar communication and travel.
Science Fiction Future Histories