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Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology[1][2] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter that occur below the given size threshold. Origins[edit] Comparison of Nanomaterials Sizes Related:  NanotechsOur final invention

Understanding Nanomedicine: An Infographic Nanomedicine is a field of medical science that involves the use of objects and substances at the molecular level. Basically, it is the application of nanotechnology to medicine. Currently, nanomedicine is used for nanoparticle drug delivery where medicine is delivered to a specific area of the body through a nanosized container or vessel. Robotics Robotics is the branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and computer science that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots,[1] as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.[2] Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Etymology[edit] History of robotics[edit] Robotic aspects[edit] Components[edit] Power source[edit]

nano tech 2013 International Nanotechnology Exhibition & Conference Outline of nanotechnology Overview of and topical guide to nanotechnology Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Branches of nanotechnology[edit] Green nanotechnology – use of nanotechnology to enhance the environmental-sustainability of processes currently producing negative externalities. It also refers to the use of the products of nanotechnology to enhance sustainability.Nanoengineering – practice of engineering on the nanoscale. Multi-disciplinary fields that include nanotechnology[edit] Nanobiotechnology – intersection of nanotechnology and biology.[1]Ceramic engineering – science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials.Materials science – interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. Contributing fields[edit] Nanoscience[edit] Other contributing fields[edit] Risks of nanotechnology[edit] Implications of nanotechnology Nanomaterials[edit]

Easy and effective therapy to restore sight: Engineered virus will improve gene therapy for blinding eye diseases Researchers at UC Berkeley have developed an easier and more effective method for inserting genes into eye cells that could greatly expand gene therapy to help restore sight to patients with blinding diseases ranging from inherited defects like retinitis pigmentosa to degenerative illnesses of old age, such as macular degeneration. Unlike current treatments, the new procedure is quick and surgically non-invasive, and it delivers normal genes to hard-to-reach cells throughout the entire retina. Over the last six years, several groups have successfully treated people with a rare inherited eye disease by injecting a virus with a normal gene directly into the retina of an eye with a defective gene. "Sticking a needle through the retina and injecting the engineered virus behind the retina is a risky surgical procedure," said David Schaffer, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and director of the Berkeley Stem Cell Center at UC Berkeley.

Life extension The sale of putative anti-aging products such as nutrition, physical fitness, skin care, hormone replacements, vitamins, supplements and herbs is a lucrative global industry, with the US market generating about $50 billion of revenue each year.[2] Some medical experts state that the use of such products has not been proven to affect the aging process, and many claims of anti-aging medicine advocates have been roundly criticized by medical experts, including the American Medical Association.[2][3][4][5][6] Public opinion[edit] Life extension is a controversial topic due to fear of overpopulation and possible effects on society.[10] Religious people are no more likely to oppose life extension than the unaffiliated,[11] though some variation exists between religious denominations. A Spring 2013 Pew Research poll in the United States found that 38% of Americans would want life extension treatments, and 56% would reject it. Average and maximum lifespans[edit] Diets and supplements[edit]

Nanotechnology Just give me the FAQ The next few paragraphs provide a brief introduction to the core concepts of nanotechnology, followed by links to further reading. Manufactured products are made from atoms. If we rearrange the atoms in coal we can make diamond. If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a few other trace elements) we can make computer chips. If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we can make potatoes. Todays manufacturing methods are very crude at the molecular level. It's like trying to make things out of LEGO blocks with boxing gloves on your hands. In the future, nanotechnology (more specifically, molecular nanotechnology or MNT) will let us take off the boxing gloves. "Nanotechnology" has become something of a buzzword and is applied to many products and technologies that are often largely unrelated to molecular nanotechnology. Nanotechnology will let us: Achieve the ultimate in precision: almost every atom in exactly the right place. Some Frequently Asked Questions Books

History of nanotechnology Overview of the history of nanotechnology The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time. Early uses of nanomaterials[edit] The earliest evidence of nanotechnology and its application is traced back to 600 BC at Keeladi, India.[1] Subsequently carbon nanotubes, cementite nanowires found in the microstructure of wootz steel manufactured in ancient India from the time period of 900 AD and exported globally.[2] Although nanoparticles are associated with modern science, they were used by artisans as far back as the ninth century in Mesopotamia for creating a glittering effect on the surface of pots.[3][4] Conceptual origins[edit] Richard Feynman[edit] Norio Taniguchi[edit] K. K. Experimental research and advances[edit] President George W.

Tiny Nanomotors Successfully Placed Inside Live Human Cells For The First Time Scientists have successfully placed tiny synthetic motors in live human cells through nanotechnology. Using ultrasonic waves as the power source and magnets to steer, the nanomotors can zip around the cell and perform tasks. The main obstacle for placing nanomotors in cells is the power source. The researchers at Penn State University and at Weinberg Medical Physics found that ultrasonic waves can be used to power these motors and that magnetic fields can be used to steer them. The image above is that of a HeLa cell with some gold-ruthenium nanomotors inside it. Bionanotechnology is fast becoming popular in medical and scientific research. For the first time, a team of chemists and engineers at Penn State University have placed tiny synthetic motors inside live human cells, propelled them with ultrasonic waves and steered them magnetically. The researchers' findings will be published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition on 10 February 2014. Video: Nanomotors in Cells

Biotechnology "Bioscience" redirects here. For the scientific journal, see BioScience. For life sciences generally, see life science. Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).[1] Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering, biomedical engineering, etc. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine.[2] The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky. Definitions[edit] History[edit] Brewing was an early application of biotechnology Agriculture has been theorized to have become the dominant way of producing food since the Neolithic Revolution. Examples[edit] Medicine[edit] Agriculture[edit]

Nanotechnology is coming by Ralph C. Merkle, Principal Fellow, Zyvex This is the English original of an article translated into German and published in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of Monday, September 11 2000 on page 55. In the coming decades nanotechnology could make a supercomputer so small it could barely be seen in a light microscope. Not long ago, such a forecast would have been ridiculed. At its heart, the coming revolution in manufacturing is a continuation of trends that date back decades and even centuries. The remarkably low manufacturing cost comes from self replication. While nanotechnology does propose to use self replication, it does not propose to copy living systems. Now that the feasibility of nanotechnology is widely accepted, we enter the next phase of the public discussion: what policies should we adopt to best deal with it? Self replication is at the heart of many policy discussions. Consider, for example, the difference between a bird and an airplane. Further reading:

Category:Silicon photonics The main article for this category is Silicon photonics. Silicon photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium. This category includes any nanotechnology that uses silicon to transmit, receive and/or process light (photons). Subcategories This category has only the following subcategory. Pages in category "Silicon photonics" The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total.

Tiny brains created from SKIN could lead to cures for disorders like schizophrenia and autism Scientists used stem cells to grow 3D tissue that mimics a brainThe cells displayed an organisation similar to that seen in the early stages of the developing human brain's cerebral cortex - also known as grey matterThe miniature brains helped the researchers identify a defect that affects normal brain development in microcephaly leading to a smaller brainThe findings could eventually lead to treatments for other neurological disorders By Emma Innes Published: 18:19 GMT, 28 August 2013 | Updated: 00:00 GMT, 29 August 2013 A ‘brain in a bottle’ has been grown by stem cell scientists who hope it will lead to treatments for neurological and mental diseases. The ‘organoids’, three to four millimetres across, have a structure similar to that of an immature human brain. The goal was to produce a biological tool that can be used to investigate the workings of the brain, better understand brain diseases, and test new drugs. ‘These structures are not just peculiar lab artefacts.

Futures studies Moore's law is an example of futures studies; it is a statistical collection of past and present trends with the goal of accurately extrapolating future trends. Futures studies (also called futurology and futurism) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. There is a debate as to whether this discipline is an art or science. In general, it can be considered as a branch of the social sciences and parallel to the field of history. In the same way that history studies the past, futures studies considers the future. Overview[edit] Futures studies is an interdisciplinary field, studying yesterday's and today's changes, and aggregating and analyzing both lay and professional strategies and opinions with respect to tomorrow. Foresight may be the oldest term for the field. The futures field also excludes those who make future predictions through professed supernatural means. Probability and predictability[edit]

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