It was created on December 23, 1913, with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907. Over time, the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System have expanded, and its structure has evolved. Events such as the Great Depression were major factors leading to changes in the system. Plutocracy.
Plutocracy (from Greek πλοῦτος, ploutos, meaning "wealth", and κράτος, kratos, meaning "power, dominion, rule") or plutarchy, is a form of oligarchy and defines a society or a system ruled and dominated by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens.
The first known use of the term was in 1652. Unlike systems such as democracy, capitalism, socialism or anarchism, plutocracy is not rooted in an established political philosophy. The concept of plutocracy may be advocated by the wealthy classes of a society in an indirect or surreptitious fashion, though the term itself is almost always used in a pejorative sense. Usage Examples Examples of plutocracies include the Roman Empire, some city-states in Ancient Greece, the civilization of Carthage, the Italian city-states/merchant republics of Venice, Florence, Genoa, and pre-World War II Empire of Japan (the zaibatsu). Modern politics Oligarchy. Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning "few", and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning "to rule or to command") is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people.
These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, education, corporate, or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. Throughout history, oligarchies have been tyrannical (relying on public obedience and/or oppression to exist) or relatively benign. Simon Critchley: What Is Normal?
Profit (economics) In neoclassical microeconomic theory, the term profit has two related but distinct meanings.
Economic profit is similar to accounting profit but smaller because it reflects the total opportunity costs (both explicit and implicit) of a venture to an investor. Normal profit refers to a situation in which the economic profit is zero. A related concept, sometimes considered synonymous to profit in certain contexts, is that of economic rent. In Classical economics and Marxian economics, profit is the return to an owner of capital goods or natural resources in any productive pursuit involving labor, or a return on bonds and money invested in capital markets. By extension, in Marxian economic theory, the maximization of profit corresponds to the accumulation of capital, which is the driving force behind economic activity within the capitalist mode of production.
Related concepts include profitability and the profit motive. Profitability is a term of economic efficiency.
Democratic government 'slippage'- implosion. Free speech - online freedom. Quellcode entschlüsselt: Beweis für NSA-Spionage in Deutschland. If you read Boing Boing, the NSA considers you a target for deep surveillance. This bastardised libertarianism makes 'freedom' an instrument of oppression. Illustration by Daniel Pudles Freedom: who could object?
Yet this word is now used to justify a thousand forms of exploitation. Throughout the rightwing press and blogosphere, among thinktanks and governments, the word excuses every assault on the lives of the poor, every form of inequality and intrusion to which the 1% subject us. PRIVATE PRISONS AMERICA. Stephen Fry on American Prisons Facts (MIRROR)
The Abu Ghraib of Los Angeles? The state has also faced lawsuits over prison conditions; click for a slideshow.
From Brown v. Inmates Seek to Advance Jefferson County Overcrowding Suit - Bankruptcy Beat. Police State. The Shock Doctrine. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism is a 2007 book by the Canadian author Naomi Klein, and is the basis of a 2009 documentary by the same name directed by Michael Winterbottom. The book argues that libertarian free market policies (as advocated by the economist Milton Friedman) have risen to prominence in some developed countries because of a deliberate strategy by some political leaders.
These leaders exploit crises to push through controversial exploitative policies while citizens are too emotionally and physically distracted by disasters or upheavals to mount an effective resistance. The Shock Doctrine. The Shock Doctrine 2009 Movie Trailer MattTrailer com DVD Clips, Previews, Movie Teasers & Trailers. Naomi Klein: The Shock Doctrine. The Shock Doctrine (NL ondertiteling) 1/6 - De waarheid achter de globale vrije markteconomie. Donald Ewen Cameron. Naomi Klein - The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Naomi Klein. Financial Giants Put New York City Cops On Their Payroll. Videos are springing up across the internet showing uniformed members of the New York Police Department in white shirts (as opposed to the typical NYPD blue uniforms) pepper spraying and brutalizing peaceful, nonthreatening protestors attempting to take part in the Occupy Wall Street marches.
Corporate media are reporting that these white shirts are police supervisors as opposed to rank and file. DN! Capitalism vs. the Climate: Naomi Klein on Need for New Economic Model to Address Ecological Crisis. JUAN GONZÁLEZ: Scientists from NASA have confirmed that last month was the warmest August on record globally.
Much of the world, including central Europe, northern Africa, parts of South America and the western portions of North America, saw much higher than normal temperatures. According to the National Climatic Data Center, August was the 354th consecutive month with a global average temperature above the 20th century average. The news comes as flooding in India and Pakistan has killed more than 400 people and displaced nearly a million.
The flooding is the worst to hit the Kashmir region in half a century. Severe drought in Central America has left nearly three million people struggling to feed themselves. Ayn Rand. Literary critics received Rand's fiction with mixed reviews, and academia generally ignored or rejected her philosophy, though academic interest has increased in recent decades. The Objectivist movement attempts to spread her ideas, both to the public and in academic settings. She has been a significant influence among libertarians and American conservatives. Life Early life Rand was born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum (Russian: Али́са Зиновьевна Розенбаум) on February 2, 1905, to a Russian Jewish bourgeois family living in Saint Petersburg.
Atlas Shrugged. Atlas Shrugged Trailer. The Fountainhead 1/12. ScienceGuide: College van Gordon Gekko - Yaron Brook. 1 november 2013 - Timo Klein heeft een buitenkans. De jonge Amsterdamse econoom mag doorstuderen aan de London School of Economics. Voor ScienceGuide kijkt hij rond, snuffelt aan het debat, de stijl en de inhouden van deze hotspot. @yaronbrook sur Twitter. WAR ON EDUCATION AND STUDENTS. Nederland buiten kennis. Nederland kan alleen meer verdienen door meer uit te vinden, maar er is gebrek aan de belangrijkste grondstof: kennis. De technisch hoogopgeleide mensen die voor deze innovaties nodig zijn, studeren niet in Nederland. Zeynep Tufekci: .@schock: Many #ows "media... The Global Justice Movement. Students / teachers / facilitators protests initiatives. #Chile students' #protests 2011 #education 02mySocActi_201109_no. Mass Incarceration and Criminal Justice in America.
Wikileaks : Hillary Clinton + State De... Anti-globalization movement. The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalisation movement, is critical of the globalization of corporate capitalism. The movement is also commonly referred to as the global justice movement, alter-globalization movement, anti-globalist movement, anti-corporate globalization movement, or movement against neoliberal globalization.
Participants base their criticisms on a number of related ideas. What is shared is that participants oppose what they see as large, multi-national corporations having unregulated political power, exercised through trade agreements and deregulated financial markets. Specifically, corporations are accused of seeking to maximize profit at the expense of work safety conditions and standards, labor hiring and compensation standards, environmental conservation principles, and the integrity of national legislative authority, independence and sovereignty. Ideology and causes Global opposition to neoliberalism Anti-war movement Wereld Sociaal Forum. Global Warming / Climate Change. END CIV Resist Or Die (Full) Way Beyond Greenwashing: Have Corporations Captured Big Conservation? Jonathan Latham (Photo Credit: auspices) Imagine an international mega-deal. The global organic food industry agrees to support international agribusiness in clearing as much tropical rainforest as they want for farming.
There's No Tomorrow (2012) NASA brengt temperatuurverandering in kaart. De Nederlandse Publieke Omroep maakt gebruik van cookies. Histomapwider.jpg (JPEG Image, 2097 × 9554 pixels) - Scaled (6%) The Unrealized Horrors of Population Explosion. Advertisement.